2.0: The Enlightenment and the Scientific
The Enlightenment- using your knowledge and scientific reasoning to have a deeper insight on
Reason- using mathematical and scientific prove theories
-Renaissance people wanted to do b
-most successfuly associated with ideas of the church.
-Ideas about how universe functioned adapted from Greek thinker, Pythagoras
-reasoning cause geocentric system to be called Aristotelian
-Geocentric- earth=center of univer
Scientific Revolution Review
1. What did the new ideas challenge?
2. What did the Scholastics want to blend?
3. Describe the transition of the worldviews.
4. Where was the scientific revolution centered?
5. List 5 things that influenced the revolution
1. What was the English Parliament like after 1688?
2. Aspects of the traditional economy? (4)
3. What was traditional farming like? (4)
4. Describe the innovations in: Sowing, the 3-field system, and animal h
19th Century Isms: Nationalism, Ideologies, and Culture
1. Why did isms arise during the Age of Metternich?
1. What were the fragments in Italy?
a) Southern boot
b) Middle of the Peninsula
c) Industrialized provinces in the North
d) Western It
Legacy of the War
- 37 million people dead
- Cost of war: 186 billion dollars
- A sense of disillusionmen, insecurity, and despair affected the survivors
- Art and literature reflected this sense of disillusionment
Age of Uncertainty
Age of Metternich and Revolutions of 1848
1. Define the Age of Metternich.
2. Which countries avoided revolution? Why?
1. Whose interests did Parliament represent after 1815?
2. Effects of the 1815 Corn Laws? What were they?
1. Renaissance was roughly when?
2. How was the worldview of the time different from that of the Middle Ages?
Before, everything had been focused on God and salvation. Now, people focused on other things: cultural developm
Russia under Alexander II
1. Differences between West and Russia? (4)
2. Characteristics of government? (4)
3. What were serfs like? (4)
5. What other conditions did Alexander relax?
6. Effects of Crimean War/Reforms of Alexander? (3)
1. Name the five aspects of Marxist theory.
2. Describe the aspects.
3. List reasons of failure (7)
4. Where did revolution really take place as opposed to where Marx thought they would?
1. Name the five aspects of Marxist
Congress of Vienna
1. What was Napoleons final battle (1813)?
2. Prominent people at the meeting?
3. The three dominating principles?
4. How was security established?
5. How was compensation upheld?
6. How was legitimacy upheld?
7. What happened to the HR
The Cold War and Postwar Economic Recovery 1945-1970
- Atlantic Charter
- Moscow 1942: With Stalin and Churchill -> Stalin demands a Western front, but U.S. is fighting Japan -> Russia is
concerned that Western powers are letting Russia
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND THE FALL OF THE MONARCHY
Great Revolution (1789-1799): period of creation and discovery
genuine euphoria and democratic transformations
violence and destruction
touched all society
elites: initiate overthrow of existing orde
Chapter 12: The European Empires
Group Four Pg. 370-376
The Wars of the Roses: England did not suffer any threat of foreign invasion, but its crown was weak,
and the ambitions of the nobility werent good. For thirty years, the English aris
Paracelsus: Swiss alchemist who studied with a German alchemist before becoming a physician,
though his true vocation was alchemy. His work was a combination of Neoplatonic and Hermetic
traditions. He conducted experiments to extract the essence of metals
THE ROYAL STATE IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
THE RISE OF THE ROYAL STATE
16th c: monarchs treated their states and their subjects as personal property
rulers praised for virtue, wisdom, strength
17th c: monarchy transformed into office of st
3. How did members of Parliament achieve their position? (be complete)
Members of the House of Commons were nominated to their seats. Local oligarchies or a neighboring
patron in small towns had a customary right to make nominations. In large cities, citi
THE CRISES OF THE WESTERN STATES
society: integrated whole, equally dependent upon monarchical, ecclesiastical, and civil authority for survival
reformation created two churches
Peace of Augsburg (1555 Germany): religion of ruler was religion of subjec
rich and costly culture that reflected increasing sociability of aristocracy
entertainment: central part of aristocratic life; music: cultural passion
string quartet: first appearance in 18th c.; chamber music
only wealthy a
Masaccio: He was one of the three Florentine masters in the century that culminated in
Michelangelos extraordinary achievements. The Florentine masters deeply influenced one anothers
development. Masaccios (1401-1428) created an enduring l
THE INTELLECTUAL REFORMATION
16th c: reformers in W. Europe preached new ideas about religious doctrine and religious practice
ideas took form of sustained critique of Roman Catholic Church at first
some remained within traditional Catholicism
Theory of epicycle and eccentric circles. Earth = center of the universe
Polish. Theory of epicycle and eccentric circles. Sun = center of the universe. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.
Denmark. Saw a nova and a comet
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
Father wanted him to become a lawyer
Had an early education at a Brethren school called the Brethren of
Known as the Father
17 yrs old: went to the University of Erfurt to study law
1. The most expensive and distinguished building in the village depicted at the beginning of the
chapter is the church.
2. A proper description of 16th century rural housing is construction of wood and thatch.
3. During the 16th century, both the populati
French Revolution (1789-1799)
Causes of the French Rev.
- financial debt (direct influence)
- war debt of Louis XIV (7 Years' War) & Louis XV (support for the American Rev.)
- took up 50% of France's budget
- cost of a standing army (25% of 1788 budget)
1. Analyze the development of absolutism in France (1500-1715)
Who: Cardinal Richelieu under Louis XIII
What: Belief that all power should belong to the king
Why: In order to ensure the kings authority over his country so tha
Chapter 11 Study Guide
Group one: pp. 322-326
1. How did men like Petrarch and Ficino view the world they lived in as something
2. What were the two main realms of emphasis in
Chapter 29 Study Guide
Post War Recovery and Crisis
From the Cold War to the
New Europe, 1945-1968
Group One pp.898-907
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (what was it, who was in it, why created?)
LOUIS XIV & PETER THE GREAT
Stripped of power
status retained by
participation in court
life at Versailles
service in military
one religion policy