Stage 8: Integrity vs. Despair
In old age, people examine their lives. They may either have a sense of contentment or be disappointed about their
lives and fearful of the future.
Eriksons theory is useful because it addresses both personality stability an
People and animals dont learn only by conditioning; they also learn by observing others. Observational learning is
the process of learning to respond in a particular way by watching others, who are called models. Observational
learning is also called vica
The three processes involved in memory are encoding, storage, and retrieval.
Encoding is putting information into memory and includesstructural, phonemic, and semantic encoding.
In storage, information is maintained in a three-stage pr
Decision-making involves weighing alternatives and choosing between them.
People dont always make rational decisions. In the 1950s, economist Herbert Simon proposed that peoples capacity
to process and evaluate multiple alternatives limits their ability t
After psychologists develop a theory, form a hypothesis, make observations, and collect data, they end up with a lot
of information, usually in the form of numerical data. The term statistics refers to the analysis and interpretation of
this numerical dat
Psychologists use the scientific method to conduct their research. Thescientific method is a standardized way of
making observations, gathering data, forming theories, testing predictions, and interpreting results.
Researchers make observations in order t
Psychologists study a wide range of topics, such as language development in children and the effects of sensory
deprivation on behavior. They use scientifically testable models and methods to conduct their research.
Scientists use the
Experimental and Control Groups
Typically, a researcher conducting an experiment divides subjects into an experimental group and a control group.
The subjects in both groups receive the same treatment, with one important difference: the researcher manipul
In the past, researchers performed all kinds of questionable experiments in the name of science. For example, in one
famous experiment, psychologist Stanley Milgram led his subjects to believe that they were giving painful electric
shocks to other people.
Psychologists use many different methods for conducting research. Each method has advantages and disadvantages
that make it suitable for certain situations and unsuitable for others.
Descriptive or Correlational Research Methods
Case studies, surveys, nat