Creativity is the ability to generate novel, valuable ideas. People need a minimum level of intelligence to be creative,
but not all people who get high scores on intelligence tests are creative.
Divergent vs. Convergent Thinking
Creativity is characteriz
Some researchers have tried to teach apes to use language. Because of the structure of their vocal organs, apes
cant say words, but they can communicate using signs or computers. Using these means, apes can make requests,
respond to questions, and follow
Language is a system of symbols and rules that is used for meaningful communication. A system of communication
has to meet certain criteria in order to be considered a language:
A language uses symbols, which are sounds, gestures, or written characters t
People often use heuristics to estimate probabilities. One heuristic people frequently use is the availability heuristic.
When people use this rule-of-thumb strategy, they estimate probability based on how readily they can remember
A typical dictionary definition of intelligence is the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge. Intelligence includes
the ability to benefit from past experience, act purposefully, solve problems, and adapt to new situations. Intelligence
can also be defi
The psychometric approach to intelligence emphasizes peoples performance on standardized aptitude
tests. Aptitude tests predict peoples future ability to acquire skills or knowledge. Achievement tests, on the other
hand, measure skills and knowledge that
Evolutionary psychology uses evolutionary theory to explain similarities in psychological characteristics. According to
evolutionary psychologists, patterns of behavior have evolved through natural selection, in the same way that
Evolution is a change in the frequency of genes in a population over time. Evolutionary psychologists try to explain
universal behaviors. They study how natural selection has encouraged certain behavior patterns to develop.
The Theory of Natural Selection
Researchers do different kinds of studies to see whether and to what extent a characteristic might be genetically
In family studies, researchers look at similarities among members of a family with respect to a particular trait.
Behavior genetics is a branch of psychology that examines the genetic base of behavior and personality differences
among people. An understanding of genetics begins with the following basic concepts:
A vast number of cells make up the human body. Each ce