Talking Tables and Dancing Dishwashers
Animism explains the popularity of childrens movies featuring characters such as talking vegetables or singing
candlesticks. Young children can readily believe that objects around them are alive, which means they can
Sleep is just one of many types of consciousness we experience, and sleep itself comprises several states of
consciousness. Even when were sleeping, our brains and bodies continue to work.
Sleep is affected by biological rhythms or peri
The function of dreams is as much a mystery as the function of sleep.
Freuds Dream Theory
PsychoanalystSigmund Freudbelieved that dreams allow people to express unconscious wishes they find
unacceptable in real life. He drew a distinction between the mani
Conditioning accounts for a lot of learning, both in humans and nonhuman species. However, biological factors can
limit the capacity for conditioning. Two good examples of biological influences on conditioning are taste aversion and
Memory is essentially the capacity for storing and retrieving information. Three processes are involved in memory:
encoding, storage, and retrieval. All three of these processes determine whether something is remembered or
Organization of Memories
Imagine what would happen if a psychology textbook werent organized by section, by chapter, or in any other way.
Imagine if the textbook didnt have a table of contents or an index. If the textbook just contained lots of informatio
Memory researchers certainly havent forgotten Hermann Ebbinghaus, the first person to do scientific studies of
forgetting, using himself as a subject. He spent a lot of time memorizing endless lists of nonsense syllables and then
testing himself to see wh
In spite of all these reasons for forgetting, people can still remember a vast amount of information. In addition,
memory can be enhanced in a variety of ways, including rehearsal, overlearning, distributed practice, minimizing
interference, deep processi
Rhymes are also good mnemonics. For example, the familiar rhyme that begins, Thirty days has September . . . is a
mnemonic for remembering the number of days in each month.
Some well-known memory improvement methods involve using vis
Memories arent exact records of events. Instead, memories are reconstructed in many different ways after events
happen, which means they can be distorted by several factors. These factors include schemas, source amnesia, the
misinformation effect, the hin
Dialectical reasoning is the process of going back and forth between opposing points of view in order to come up
with a satisfactory solution.
Example: A student might use dialectical reasoning when she considers the pros and cons of
Problem-solving is the active effort people make to achieve a goal that cannot be easily attained.
Types of Problems
Three common categories of problems includeinducing structure,arranging, andtransformation.
Some problems involve findi