Human Cloning and Human Dignity
a. The 1997 National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) determined that
cloning to produce children was unethical and asked that the subject be further
deliberated on. This is the role of the Presidents Co
Historical Aspects of Cloning
I. Scientific Milestones
a. Early experiments in the 1950s showed that it is more difficult to take a
highly differentiated nucleus and insert it into an egg to initiate
development than to take a relatively undiffere
I. Cloned Human Embryo: The Product of SCNT
a. The term SCNT omits all reference to its significant product.
a.i. The nucleate egg is a zygote equivalent, capable of reaching
b. A fertilized egg is a totipotent cell, but the former term carr
Importance of Terminology
I. The Importance of Careful Use of Names
a. SCNT means somatic cell nuclear transfer.
b. Linguistic sloppiness and chicanery can lead to morally charged terminology.
c. Should some research activities be called cloning even thou
I. Some Basic Facts about Human Cell Biology and Sexual Reproduction
a. IVF is still sexual in the sense that it involves two gametes fusing in fertilization.
II. Cloning (Asexual Reproduction) of Mammals
a. Cloning of mammal
a. Prospect of a New Eugenics
a.i. In liberal societies like the US cloning to produce children could come to
be used privately for eugenic purposes while in illiberal societies like
China, cloning to produce children could come to be used by the
a. In the current system children are the product of love rather than individual will.
Even with IVF, the child has a high degree of genetic independence from the
b. Gifts and blessing we accept gratefully, like children born of sexual production
a. Dolly has exhibited early arthritis, suggesting that certain factors cause clones
to have increased morbidity.
a.i. It is unacceptable to knowingly allow somebody into the world in a
manner that increases his or her potential morbidity.
b. Even though
I. The Case Against Cloning to Produce Children
a. The Nuremberg Code of 1947, Helsinki Declaration of 1964, and Belmont Report
of 1978, by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of
Biomedical and Behavioral Research, are published r
a. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission in 1997 and the National Academy
of Sciences in 2002 have concluded that attempts to clone to produce children are
a.i. This is based on likelihood of physical harm to those involved.