I. From Elijah Poole to Elijah Muhammad
a. Elijah Poole changed his name to Elijah Muhammad, later taking over the
a.i. He was born in Georgia in 1897.
b. Elijah had 8 children, including Imam Warith Deen Mohammed.
c. The Great Migration from 19
a. The Garvey movement had emphasized an internationalist perspective that allied
them with the darker races of the world, including Indians, against white
Europeans and Americans.
b. The UNIA did for blacks politically what Ahmadiyya did religiously: the
I. The Moslem Sunrise, The Jihad of Words, And Protestant Resistance to Sadiqs MultiRacial Mission
a. In 1921 Sadiq published the first issue of Moslem Sunrise, which was purposed at
refuting misrepresentations of Islam by the US press.
a.i. This was part
I. The Ahmadiyyas Early Days in America
a. Mufti Muhammad Sadiq was the first Ahmadiyya missionary in America in 1920.
b. While on the ship from London to America, Sadiq converted several passengers
from various countries to Islam.
b.i. The authorities in
I. The Ahmadiyya movement was the first multi-racial model for American Islam.
a.i. It sought to unite black Muslims with immigrant Muslims, in addition to
carrying out missionary work in America.
II. The Ahmadiyya Movement in India: Heterodoxy and Muslim
I. Legacy of WD Fard
a. Scholars have called the period between WWI and WWII as the crumbling of the
Protestant establishment and the emergence of pluralism.
a.i. This period saw a growth in new religious movements in black
a.ii. Unstable con
I. From Elijah Muhammad to Gulam Bogans and Muhammad Rassoul: Dissension in the
Nation of Islam
a. Some of Fards ideas led to dissension of the Nation of Islam and persecution
from the outside.
a.i. He taught his followers that they were citizens of Mecca
I. Signification and Identity: The Mystery of WD Fard
a. Fard created a list of names for himself in order to maintain an aura of mystery
a.i. One name was Wali Farrad.
a.ii. Allah and the prophet Muhammad also had many names to keep them
I. The Nation of Islam
a. The Nation of Islam was different from the larger Muslim community because of
their belief that blacks and whites are fundamentally different.
a.i. White people were considered evil and blacks were considered divine.
a.ii. Fard h
Islam in the African-American Experience
Epilogue: Commodification of Identity
a. AA Islam has finally arrived on the center stage of American religion and
a.i. What does this portend for AA identity formation?
b. Today most AAs