Brocas aphasia is a language
disturbance characterized by poor
speech output but good comprehension.
The Biopsychology of Consciousness
Consciousness - awareness of our perceptions,
thoughts, feelings and memories.
Neurons- basic functional units
Glial cells- support (structural/metabolic)
Billions of cells
~1011 neurons in brain
10 times as many glial cells
Neurons are small
Cell body 1-100 m
Axons up to 1.5 meters
2 refractory periods of the AP
Absolute- neuron is completely insensitive
to stimulation. Due to still open or just
closed (unresponsive) Na+ channels.
Relative- neuron is less sensitive to
stimulation. Only strong depolarizing
The Action Potential
Hermann von Helmholtz
Measured the speed of nerve
impulses in frog sciatic nerve.
Nerves dont conduct like
Neural conduction more than
simple electrical conduction.
Cell Theory (1600s)
Body made up
Left inferior frontal cortex
Brocas aphasia is a disturbance of language with a breakdown in
grammar often associated with anomia (without word).
Tolerance and overdose
Fewer postsynaptic opioid
Greater efficiency of enzymatic
breakdown (neurons and liver)
Larger doses needed to
Overdose from respiratory
Withdrawal and recovery