Chapters 14 & 15
To study the abnormal is the best way of
understanding the normal.
William James (1842-1910)
There are 450 million people suffering from
psychological disorders (WHO, 2004).
First exam is this Thursday.
Youre responsible for material in the textbook
that I have not covered in lecture.
As stated on the first day, youre not responsible
for Module 15.3 in Chapter 15.
Cooperation and Competition
Schedules of Reinforcement
A schedule of reinforcement is a set of rules for
delivery of reinforcement
A continuous reinforcement schedule provides
reinforcement every time a response occurs.
Schedules of Reinforcement
Reconstructing Past Events
bias = tendency to mold our
recollection of the past to how events later
turned out. (We say I knew that was going to
happen! after the event occurred)
memories are tailored as we
Sleep - contd
Exam 2 is tomorrow (Tuesday)
Sleep saves energy
Lowers body temperature.
Decreases muscle activity.
Conserves energy in times of famine
by longer sleep and lowered body
= are strategies for simplifying a
problem or guiding an investigation.
problems are too ill defined for the use of
example = What career would be best for
less well def
Many Types of Motivation
We understand some motivations that are directly
related to survival, but still puzzle over those that seem
to have nothing to do with staying alive.
Unusual behaviors are most likely driven by a
combination of motivating f
Measuring Brain Activity
and MEG record electrical & magnetic
q Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
uses radioactivity from chemicals injected into
q Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
made some enduring & highly useful
contributions to psychology
(and the whole world, in many areas of
Carl Jung put a greater emphasis on the
continuity of human experience
Dr. D. W. Zaidel
Dept. of Psychology, University of
California at Los Angeles (UCLA).
Its a pleasure to have you in my class today
textbook for passing exams:
to Psychology by James W.
Kalat (9th edition, only)
cerebellum = for coordination of the
muscles and timing of the coordination;
for standing, walking, sitting, & more.
medulla oblongata & the pons =
control breathing & heart rate.
Nervous System Cells
In addition to the 6 basic states there are 2 more
known to be experienced:
These are hard to decipher through facial
Surprise is listed as a basic emotion but little
Many Influences on child development
vDefects: fetal alcohol, smoking, nutrition
vStages of intellectual development
vStages of identity
Chapters to study for the final exam
5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11
Types of Learning
Learning = any relatively permanent change
in behavior thats based upon experience.
Factors both within & outside
How do we teach children how to speak?
parents use parentese, a slow and high-pitched
method of communication that may enhance early
very young infants start picking up
Children Exposed to No
The debate & mysteries of consciousness
Rene Descartes French philosopher in 1637
said that to be conscious means to be able to
say, I think, therefore I am. In Latin, "Cogito
vSchools of Psychotherapy
vassumes source of psychological distress is
a perceived incongruence between the selfconcept & ideal image of self.
vbelieves people natu
The Usefulness of Emotions
vEmotions adjust our priorities & focus our attention on
vHappy moods increase our readiness to explore new
ideas & opportunities.
vMildly sad moods seem to increase the accuracy of our
have tri-chromatic color vision:
red, green, blue
colorblindness is the most
Yellow-blue colorblindness is another
type, but is rare.
All other colors can be mixed from these 3