Brocas aphasia is a language
disturbance characterized by poor
speech output but good comprehension.
The Biopsychology of Consciousness
Consciousness - awareness of our perceptions,
thoughts, feelings and memories.
Neurons- basic functional units
Glial cells- support (structural/metabolic)
Billions of cells
~1011 neurons in brain
10 times as many glial cells
Neurons are small
Cell body 1-100 m
Axons up to 1.5 meters
2 refractory periods of the AP
Absolute- neuron is completely insensitive
to stimulation. Due to still open or just
closed (unresponsive) Na+ channels.
Relative- neuron is less sensitive to
stimulation. Only strong depolarizing
The Action Potential
Hermann von Helmholtz
Measured the speed of nerve
impulses in frog sciatic nerve.
Nerves dont conduct like
Neural conduction more than
simple electrical conduction.
Cell Theory (1600s)
Body made up
Left inferior frontal cortex
Brocas aphasia is a disturbance of language with a breakdown in
grammar often associated with anomia (without word).
Tolerance and overdose
Fewer postsynaptic opioid
Greater efficiency of enzymatic
breakdown (neurons and liver)
Larger doses needed to
Overdose from respiratory
Withdrawal and recovery
The philosophy perspective
Philosophy is the search for knowledge.
It is the oldest discipline in cognitive
It is theoretical rather than experimental
Doesnt generate results
Defines problems, criti
Approach: A Profusion
Psychology: the science of
behavior and mental
processes related to humans or
an individuals subjective experiences
Approach II: Memory,
The capacity to retain information over
Allows us to learn from previous
Memory systems can be characterized
by duration, capacity, and coding.
Information from the
CH1: Theories of Mind: An
Introduction to Cognitive
pronounced: ar e aga
What is cognitive science?
The scientific interdisciplinary study of
Not a unified field but the intersection of al