a. Neurons first discovered in PMC region F5 in monkeys
a.i. Fire when monkey performs an action
a.ii. Also fires when monkey observes another perform the action
a.iii. Some can fire even when monkey hears the action
performed, but does
Clinical examples to get us started
a. Optic ataxia cannot coordinate visual input with motor output
a.i. Show video example
b. Apraxia many different forms (ideational, ideomotor, speech,
b.i. Show three example videos
a.i.1. Patient K.C. shows dissociation of conceptual priming and episodic memory.
a.i.2. K.C. shows word priming one-year after exposure, with no episodic memory.
a.ii. Semantic priming
a.ii.1. Idea of connected concepts in a semantic netw
a. Other motor pathways in spinal cord (so-called extra-pyramidal)
a.i. Rubrospinal (red nucleus less prominent in humans)
a.ii. Tectospinal (coordinate head and eye turning)
a.iii. Vestibulospinal (balance)
a.iv. Reticulospinal (posture, muscle tone, ant
a. Supplementary motor cortex (SMA) also have a complicated profile.
a.i. SMA lesions alien hand, utilization phenomena, motor neglect
a.ii. SMA appears to be involved in sequence of actions
a.iii. Internal vs. External guided movement hypothesis
a.i.1. Weather prediction task and episodic memory
Parkinsons patients can remember episodically, but cannot learn
the probabilistic weather prediction task
Amnesics show the reverse pattern.
a.ii. Basal ganglia and procedural learning
a.i. There are different sources of information that feed these two fiber
systems this allows for the possibility that two sources of
information are compared, and an error, or learning signal, is
a.ii. The Purkinje cell output goes to the deep
a. The cerebellum is composed of three subsystems, that are differentiated
by their inputs, their outputs, and their functions.
Evolutionary old (fish)
Receives visual input and input from brainstem
a. The hippocampus, cerebellum, and basal ganglia are suggestive of neural
machines (at least to your instructor). There is a repetitive stereotypical
neural architecture that suggests that some computation is performed on
an array of inputs. In each case
Movement Lecture 1
Topic slide Edward Evarts and Giacomo Rizzolatti
a. Evarts was a pioneering neurophysiologist at NIH who studied the
movement systems of monkeys using the single cell recording technique.
b. Rizzolatti is an Italian neurophysiologist