The law of demand is the result of 2 separate behavior patterns.
Substitution effect: If the price for a good increases, people may purchase less of that
good, or find an adequate substitute good
Real Income Effect:
Real income effect:
Due Process in Government Notes
What is seditious speech?
What is prior restraint?
Freedom and Security of the Person:
The Meaning of Due Process:
Due Process: The government must act fairly and in accord with established rules in
all that it does.
Civil Rights Laws
Civil Rights Act of 1964:
One of the most important Civil Rights legislation passed during this period.
Beyond its voting rights provisions, the 1964 laws also outlaws discrimination in
several other areas.
No person denied service in pu
Citizenship by Naturalization
Naturalization: is the legal process by which a person becomes a citizen of another
Congress has the exclusive power to provide for naturalization.
Individual naturalization is when one person is being naturalized. (
Diversity and Discrimination in American Society:
A Heterogeneous Society:
Something that is heterogeneous is composed of mix ingredients.
Historically white have made up a majority of the U.S. population.
However, that is changing as immigrants have
Asian Americans Discrimination Notes
Asian Immigrants include people from:
-philippines, China, Korea, Vietnam, and India.
Today, this group makes up about 15 million and is the nations fastest growing
As with all immigrants, assimilation
Amendments within the Constitution Notes
Gives Congress the expressed power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Shortly after the Civil War, Congress passed several civil rights laws.
These laws were soon repealed, and those that remained
Civil Liberties and Civil Rights Notes
Bell Work: 5/6
What is the difference between civil liberties and civil rights?
*Just write down the question and we will answer it after we go over the notes for this
Unalienable Rights 19.
Foreign Affairs and International Policy
Do you think the U.S. government should focus more of its attention on foreign, or domestic
(EXPLAIN IN DETAIL WHY YOU FEEL THE WAY YOU DO?)
Foreign Affairs and National Security:
Isolationism to inte
LIBEL AND SLANDER: occur when a person or entity communicates false
information that damages the reputation of another person or entity
-Libel: occurs when the false and defamatory communication is written.
-Slander: occurs when the false a
To Whom Are Right Guaranteed?:
Most constitutional rights are extended to all persons.
The Supreme Court has often held the term persons covers aliens as well as
Not all rights are given to aliens.
(ex:) The right to travel
Segregation in American Society
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Segregation in America:
Segregation- the separation of one group from another.
ex: Jim Crow laws (Mostly aimed at blacks)
Separate-but-equal doctrine : laws that segregated individuals by
The Lemon Test
The Supreme Court has been working through many cases involving State aid to
In most of these cases, the Court now applies the Lemon test.
Purpose of aid must be secular, not religious.
Primary effect shouldnt
Federalism: The Division of Power
Why Federalism? :
Federalism was a way to have a more powerful central government, yet also a way to
maintain the strength of the states.
By dividing power, it would prevent abuse of governmental power.
Law of Supply
Supply: Amount of a good or service that businesses are willing and able to sell at
Law of Supply: As the price for a good increases, the quantity supplied also
The reason a company will produce m
Characteristics of the State
State = nation or country
4 Characteristics of the State:
Population- a state must have people living within its borders.
Territory- must have land with recognized borders.
Sovereignty- has supreme and absolute powe
Americas Political Beginnings
Colonist brought knowledge of the English political system to North America. Many
of these ideas helped form the government we have today.
Basic Concepts of Government:
Early colonist brought over 3 important ideas that helpe
Different Forms of Government
What is the difference between a direct and indirect democracy?
What is the difference between an autocracy, and an oligarchy?
Types of Economic Systems:
How do the different forms of government help determine a countries eco
Three Types of English Colonies:
Royal Colonies- Ruled directly by the king.
Proprietary Colonies- Organized by an owner whom the king had granted land.
Charter Colonies- Colonist governed themselves.
*Each colony was based on a charter. (Written grant gi
Each state adopted a written constitution, or a body of fundamental laws.
What became known as our first national government?
Was our first national government unicameral or bicameral?
Who rejected the Albany Plan?
Reserved Powers- Those powers that can only be exercised by the state government
-regulate trade and business within the state
-license requirements for professionals
ex: teacher certification
3 Basic Powers
In a Presidential form of government, these three basic powers are distributed, and
separated among 3 branches of government.
Checks and Balances:
Checks and Balances: Each branch is subject to a number of constitutional checks by
Need for a Stronger Government:
The Need for a Stronger Government: The Articles of Confederation created a
government that was unable to deal with the nations problems.
As time passed, demand for a stronger national government grew.
A meeting of the dele
Limited Government Notes
What does the term, limited government mean to you?
The Six Basic Principles:
Fairly brief document.
(Only about 7,000 words)
Has successfully guided this nation through 200 years of growth and change
The Foreign Service
Some 6,000 men and women now represent the U.S. abroad as members of the Foreign
Under international law, every nation has the right of legation.
Right of legation: the right to send and receive diplomatic representatives.