Chapter 18 Electric Forces and Electric Fields
18.1 The Origin of Electricity
The electrical nature of matter is inherent in atomic structure.
m p = 1.673 10 27 kg
mn = 1.675 10 27 kg me = 9.11 10 31 kg
e = 1.60 10 19 C
coulombs
18.1 The Origin of Electri

Chapter 19 Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential
19.1 Potential Energy
WAB = mghA mghB = GPE A GPE B
19.1 Potential Energy
19.1 Potential Energy
WAB = EPE A EPE B
19.2 The Electric Potential Difference
WAB EPE A EPE B = qo qo qo
The potenti

Chapter 20 Electric Circuits
20.1 Electromotive Force and Current
In an electric circuit, an energy source and an energy consuming device are connected by conducting wires through which electric charges move.
20.1 Electromotive Force and Current
Within a

Chapter 21 Magnetic Forces and Magnetic Fields
21.1 Magnetic Fields
The needle of a compass is permanent magnet that has a north magnetic pole (N) at one end and a south magnetic pole (S) at the other.
21.1 Magnetic Fields
The behavior of magnetic poles i

Chapter 22 Electromagnetic Induction
22.1 Induced Emf and Induced Current
There are a number of ways a magnetic field can be used to generate an electric current.
It is the changing field that produces the current.
22.1 Induced Emf and Induced Current
The

Chapter 23 Alternating Current Circuits
23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance
The resistance in a purely resistive circuit has the same value at all frequencies.
Vrms = I rms R
23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance
capacitive reactance
Vrms = I rms

Chapter 24 Electromagnetic Waves
24.1 The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves
Two straight wires connected to the terminals of an AC generator can create an electromagnetic wave. Only the electric wave traveling to the right is shown here.
24.1 The Nature of

Chapter 25 The Reflection of Light: Mirrors
25.1 Wave Fronts and Rays
A hemispherical view of a sound wave emitted by a pulsating sphere. The rays are perpendicular to the wave fronts.
25.1 Wave Fronts and Rays
At large distances from the source, the wave

Chapter 26 The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments
26.1 The Index of Refraction
Light travels through a vacuum at a speed c = 3.00 10 m s
8
Light travels through materials at a speed less than its speed in a vacuum.
DEFINITION OF THE INDEX

Chapter 27 Interference and the Wave Nature of Light
27.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition
When two or more light waves pass through a given point, their electric fields combine according to the principle of superposition.
The waves emitted by the so

Chapter 28 Special Relativity
28.1 Events and Inertial Reference Frames
An event is a physical happening that occurs at a certain place and time. To record the event, each observer uses a reference frame that consists of a coordinate system and a clock. E

Chapter 29 Particles and Waves
29.1 Wave Particle Duality
When a beam of electrons is used in a Youngs double slit experiment, a fringe pattern occurs, indicating interference effects.
Waves can exhibit particle-like characteristics, and particles can exh

Chapter 30 The Nature of the Atom
30.1 Rutherford Scattering and the Nuclear Atom
In its natural state, an atom is electrically neutral.
30.1 Rutherford Scattering and the Nuclear Atom
A Rutherford scattering experiment.
30.1 Rutherford Scattering and the

Chapter 31 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity
31.1 Nuclear Structure
The atomic nucleus consists of positively charged protons and neutral neutrons.
31.1 Nuclear Structure
atomic mass number
atomic number
A
Number of protons and neutrons
=
Z
Number of prot

Chapter 32 Ionizing Radiation, Nuclear Energy, and Elementary Particles
32.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
Ionizing radiation consists of photons and/or moving particles that have sufficient energy to knock and electron out of an atom or molecu

Chapter 17 The Principle of Linear Superposition and Interference Phenomena
17.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition
When the pulses merge, the Slinky assumes a shape that is the sum of the shapes of the individual pulses.
17.1 The Principle of Linear S

Chapter 16 Waves and Sound
16.1 The Nature of Waves
1. A wave is a traveling disturbance. 1. A wave carries energy from place to place.
16.1 The Nature of Waves
Transverse Wave
16.1 The Nature of Waves
Longitudinal Wave
16.1 The Nature of Waves
Water wave

Chapter 15 Thermodynamics
15.1 Thermodynamic Systems and Their Surroundings
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that is built upon the fundamental laws that heat and work obey. The collection of objects on which attention is being focused is called th

Saturday Physics Chapter 20 Assignment is due at 1pm on Thursday, December 30, 2004.
Problem Description:
Introduction to wave notation: find relationships between the various kinematic variables: wavelength, frequency, period, and velocity.
Wave Notation

Chapter 1 Introduction and Mathematical Concepts
1.1 The Nature of Physics
Physics has developed out of the efforts of men and women to explain our physical environment. Physics encompasses a remarkable variety of phenomena: planetary orbits radio and TV

Chapter 2
Kinematics in One Dimension
Kinematics deals with the concepts that are needed to describe motion. Dynamics deals with the effect that forces have on motion. Together, kinematics and dynamics form the branch of physics known as Mechanics.
2.1 Di

Chapter 3
Kinematics in Two Dimensions
3.1 Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration
ro = initial position
r = final position
r = r ro = displacement
3.1 Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration
Average velocity is the displacement divided by the elapse

Chapter 4 Forces and Newtons Laws of Motion
4.1 The Concepts of Force and Mass
A force is a push or a pull. Contact forces arise from physical contact . Action-at-a-distance forces do not require contact and include gravity and electrical forces.
4.1 The

Chapter 5 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion
5.1 Uniform Circular Motion
DEFINITION OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION Uniform circular motion is the motion of an object traveling at a constant speed on a circular path.
5.1 Uniform Circular Motion
Let T be the t

Chapter 6 Work and Energy
6.1 Work Done by a Constant Force
W = Fs
1 N m = 1 joule ( J )
6.1 Work Done by a Constant Force
6.1 Work Done by a Constant Force
W = ( F cos ) s
cos 0 = 1 cos 90 = 0 cos180 = 1
6.1 Work Done by a Constant Force
Example 1 Pullin

Chapter 7 Impulse and Momentum
7.1 The Impulse-Momentum Theorem
There are many situations when the force on an object is not constant.
7.1 The Impulse-Momentum Theorem
DEFINITION OF IMPULSE The impulse of a force is the product of the average force and th

Chapter 8 Rotational Kinematics
8.1 Rotational Motion and Angular Displacement
In the simplest kind of rotation, points on a rigid object move on circular paths around an axis of rotation.
8.1 Rotational Motion and Angular Displacement
The angle through w

Chapter 9 Rotational Dynamics
9.1 The Action of Forces and Torques on Rigid Objects
In pure translational motion, all points on an object travel on parallel paths.
The most general motion is a combination of translation and rotation.
9.1 The Action of For

Chapter 10 Simple Harmonic Motion and Elasticity
10.1 The Ideal Spring and Simple Harmonic Motion
F
Applied x
= kx
spring constant Units: N/m
10.1 The Ideal Spring and Simple Harmonic Motion
Example 1 A Tire Pressure Gauge The spring constant of the sprin