From a simple, rna-based system, several steps could have led to dna-directed protein
To summarize, once simple organic compounds were formed from chemical reactions in
the "primordial chemical soup" found on early earth, polymers of
Two major differences between primitive earth and modern earth set the stage for the
formation of organic compounds (hydrocarbons- contain h and c) and, eventually, the
origin of living things:
The primitive atmosphere lacked free oxygen (
A polymer that is composed of glucose monomers has the functions to store energy in
These small units make up a molecule that contain adenine, guanine, cytosine, and
A triglyceride, this molecule is found in an
How might these cells have originated?
Large organic molecules form tiny *bubbles called *proteinoid microspheres under
Microspheres are not cells but they have some characteristics of living systems, so they
may be rega
This group of organic molecules do not have polymer or monomer units: lipids
The molecule that results when amino acids are combined during dehydration synthesis:
Cellular fuel: atp
General name for a molecule th
Miller Urey Experiment
Results of the miller-urey experiment: they produced *21 amino acids, the building
blocks of proteins. Miller and urey's experiment suggested
how mixtures of the
organic compounds necessary for life could have arisen from simpler co
Geologic and astronomical evidence suggests that earth formed as pieces of cosmic
debris *collided with one another.
While the planet was young, it was struck by one or more huge objects, and the entire
For millions of years, violent *volca
Evolution of photosynthesis
Summary of the effects of the evolution of photosynthesis on early earth:
Some of the o2 formed by early photosynthetic autotrophs was used to form the ozone
layer. Ozone blocks most ultraviolet radiation from reaching the eart
The endosymbiotic theory proposes that: a symbiotic relationship evolved over time,
between primitive eukaryotic cells and the prokaryotic cells within them.
Early observations that the membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts resem
Anaerobic heterotrophs consumed organic matter (organic soup) and underwent
It is believed that the ancestors of all life on earth today) were anaerobic heterotrophic
Over time, organic nutrients were probably being use
Variations are differences among members of a species. Genetic variation increases the
likelihood of a population's adapting to new or changing environmental conditions.
Multicellular organisms evolved a few hundred million years after the evolu
Forms a strong barrier between the cell and its surroundings.
What does the cell membrane regulate?
What enters and leaves the cell and
Also protects and supports the cell.
Properties of lipids
2 main portions
Passive transport - diffusion
As a result of molecules moving constantly, colliding with one another and spreading out
randomly, the particles tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an
area where they are less concentrated.
Unit 3a: origin of life
Abiogenesis vs biogenesis
Origins of the earth
Big bang theory, formation of the oceans
Composition of the atmosphere and conditions of primitive earth
Theory of chemical evolution: oparin & haldane and miller & ureys experiment
Hydrolysis vs. (dehydration) synthesis:
Definitionthis is when reactants and products of each process for carbohydrates, lipids
and proteins and nucleic acids.
Which one builds polymers from monomers and which one breaks down polymers into
Growth vs Development
Asexual vs. Sexual reproduction
Unicellular vs. Multicellular (and examples of each)
Autotrophic vs. Heterotrophic (and examples of each)
Importance of dna as the genetic material of the cell
Concentration of solutes and solvent in a solution
Identify isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic solutions
Given a specific example, identify the type of solution in relation to a cell, predict the
direction of water movement and the result on the cell. Pra
Chemical formulas, equations, reactions
Know that in a chemical reaction, bonds in the reactant(s) are broken, atoms are
rearranged, and new bonds are formed in the product(s)
Molecule vs. Compound
Coefficients, subscripts, arrow, reactant vs. Products
Most biological membranes are selectively permeable, which means
Some substances can pass across the membrane and others cannot!
Aka- semipermeableHow would the following materials move through the cell membrane?
Moves easily by osmosis
Move easily across
Activation energy definition, importance when discussing enzymes
Effect of changes in temp and ph on enzyme activity
Why denatured enzymes dont work (remember: form leads to function!)
How enzymes are named (-ase)
Acids and bases: