Baroque art and music
In the late sixteenth century, the papacy and the Jesuits
encouraged the growth of an emotional, exuberant art
intended to appeal to the senses and kindle the faith of
The baroque style took definite shape in
King John III lost all control as nobility became single most
powerful factor and would not submit to any central authority
(result lack of effective unity)
Sejm or diet was a legislative body included only nobles
no way to collect taxes or build a
The wars of religion had bred confusion, uncertainty, and
insecurity; it was an age in which sexism, racism, and
skepticism began to take on modern forms.
The status of women declined.
Literature on women and marriage called for a
European slavery and the origins of American racism
Black slavery originated with the end of white
slavery (1453) and the widespread need for labor,
particularly in the new sugar producing settlements.
Beginning in 1518 Africans were brought to America
Great Britain and the Age of Walpole
Mercantilism found its way to England during the mid 1600s
and turned Britain into one of the most powerful nations in the
It replaced Spain as the dominant empire builder and the
Netherlands as the premier trad
The Dutch East India Company became
the major organ of Dutch imperialism.
The Dutch West India Company gained
control of much of the African and
France and England made sporadic efforts at
exploration and settlement.
The economic effect
The Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office
This group, established by Pope Paul III in 1542,
carried out the Roman Inquisition as a way to
It had the power to arrest, imprison, and execute,
but its influence was confined to papal territor
The English Reformation
The Lollards, although driven underground in the
fifteenth century, survived and stressed the idea of
a direct relationship between the individual and
The English humanist William Tyndale began
printing an English translatio
Philip II and the Spanish Armada
Philip II of Spain lived at a monastery called the
Escorial; here he had a palace but he spent much
time in prayer.
Philip II sought pleasure in his youth but in older
age sought prayer-but he did not believe that the
The Catholic and the CounterReformations
There were two types of reform within the Catholic
church in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
The Catholic Reformation sought to stimulate a
new religious fervor.
The CounterReformation started in the 15