Aerobic respiration- oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with organic fuel.
Anaerobic respiration- used by prokaryotes where substances other than oxygen are used to
harvest chemical energy.
-redox reactions are reactions involving electron transfers.
Endergonic reaction- absorbs free energy from surroundings- positive G.
-A cell never reaches equilibrium because it would be dead.
-The product of a reaction doesnt accumulate, it becomes a reactant in the next step and the
final waste products are expel
Electron Transport Chain
-a collection of molecules embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondria in eukaryotic
cells (and plasma membrane in prokaryotes)
-made of proteins and prosthetic groups, nonprotein components essential for the catalytic
Oral Cavity, Pharynx, Esophagus
-ingestion and initial steps of digestion occurs in the mouth (oral cavity)
-mechanical digestion begins as teeth of various shapes cut, smash grind food, making the food
easier to swallow
-animals burn proteins only after exhausting their supply carbohydrates and fats
-excess is converted to storage molecules in liver and muscle cells in the form of glycogen
-insulin and glucagon maintain glucose homeostasis (liver releases insulin, insuli
1. Contraction of the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs via the
2. Pulmonary arteries
3. Blood flows through the capillary beds in the left and right lungs, loading O2 and
4. Oxygen rich blood returns from the lungs via th
-lower hydrostatic pressures with open circulatory systems make them less costly in energy
expenditure-high blood pressures enables effective delivery of oxygen and nutrients in closed
-blood flows in only one dir
Bioenergetics- study of how energy flows through living organisms.
Energy- capacity to cause change.
Kinetic energy- relative motion of objects
Heat/thermal energy- kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or
-If ATP concentration drops, respiration speeds up and vice versa.
-Phosophofructokinase is an enzyme that is the pacemaker because it can be inhibited by ATP,
Citrate from the Citric Acid Cycle, and stimulated by AMP (made from ADP).
- has two alternative catabolic routes and can do both aerobic respiration and fermentation.
-glycolysis takes place in the cytosol showing that it has been present since long before oxygen
was present in the atmosphere.