-may store energy in the form of starch and glycogen or be an immediate source of energy in
sugars or the building blocks of structures in the forms of cellulose or chitin.
-Includes a carbonyl group (C=O) and multiple hydroxyl groups (-OH).
-called C3 plants because the first product of carbon fixation is a three-carbon compound.
-C3 plants produce less sugar and rubsico binds O2 instead of CO2, splitting a two-carbon
compound that leaves the chloroplast. This compound is sp
-Light Reactions occur within the thylakoids of the chloroplast while the Calvin cycle occurs in
-light reactions generate ATP, using chemiosmosis to power the addition of a phosphate group
-light is known as
Linear Electron Flow (Light Reactions)
1. A photon of light strikes a pigment molecule in a light-harvesting complex of PS II,
exciting one of its electrons and as this one falls, the nearby electron excites and this
energy continues until an electron in
-Geometric isomers have the same covalent partnerships but differ in spatial arrangements,
usually around double bonds.
-Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other such as ibuprofen and albuterol
(dramatic changes in properties).
-Enzymes that hydrolyze alpha linkages cant hydrolyze beta linkages.
-Chitin is used by insects to build their exoskeletons and used by fungi to build their cell walls. It
is also used as surgical thread.
-mixes poorly with water (hydrophobic)
Cyclic Electron Flow
-uses PS I only where photoexcited electrons go back half the ETC between PS I and II, making
ATP through chemiosmosis but no NADPH or release of oxygen.
-the flow may be photoprotective, protecting cells from light-induced damage.
-Carotenoids are hydrocarbons that are various shades of yellow and orange because they
absorb violet and blue-green light. They also have photoprotection, where they absorb and
dissipate excessive light energy that would otherwise damage chlorophyll or i
-sucrose is made that provides raw materials from cellular respiration and a multitude of
anabolic pathways hat synthesize proteins, lipids, and other products.
-cellulose is made from the cell wall and starch is made for storage of energy.
-proteins have many structures, resulting in a wide range of functions (enzymatic, structural,
storage, transport, receptor, hormonal, defensive)
-consists of polypetides that are made from a combination of 20 different amino acids that is