-proteins have many structures, resulting in a wide range of functions (enzymatic, structural,
storage, transport, receptor, hormonal, defensive)
-consists of polypetides that are made from a combination of 20 different amino acids that is
-called C3 plants because the first product of carbon fixation is a three-carbon compound.
-C3 plants produce less sugar and rubsico binds O2 instead of CO2, splitting a two-carbon
compound that leaves the chloroplast. This compound is sp
-Light Reactions occur within the thylakoids of the chloroplast while the Calvin cycle occurs in
-light reactions generate ATP, using chemiosmosis to power the addition of a phosphate group
-light is known as
Linear Electron Flow (Light Reactions)
1. A photon of light strikes a pigment molecule in a light-harvesting complex of PS II,
exciting one of its electrons and as this one falls, the nearby electron excites and this
energy continues until an electron in
-Geometric isomers have the same covalent partnerships but differ in spatial arrangements,
usually around double bonds.
-Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other such as ibuprofen and albuterol
(dramatic changes in properties).
-Enzymes that hydrolyze alpha linkages cant hydrolyze beta linkages.
-Chitin is used by insects to build their exoskeletons and used by fungi to build their cell walls. It
is also used as surgical thread.
-mixes poorly with water (hydrophobic)
Cyclic Electron Flow
-uses PS I only where photoexcited electrons go back half the ETC between PS I and II, making
ATP through chemiosmosis but no NADPH or release of oxygen.
-the flow may be photoprotective, protecting cells from light-induced damage.
-Carotenoids are hydrocarbons that are various shades of yellow and orange because they
absorb violet and blue-green light. They also have photoprotection, where they absorb and
dissipate excessive light energy that would otherwise damage chlorophyll or i
-sucrose is made that provides raw materials from cellular respiration and a multitude of
anabolic pathways hat synthesize proteins, lipids, and other products.
-cellulose is made from the cell wall and starch is made for storage of energy.
-may store energy in the form of starch and glycogen or be an immediate source of energy in
sugars or the building blocks of structures in the forms of cellulose or chitin.
-Includes a carbonyl group (C=O) and multiple hydroxyl groups (-OH).
- has two alternative catabolic routes and can do both aerobic respiration and fermentation.
-glycolysis takes place in the cytosol showing that it has been present since long before oxygen
was present in the atmosphere.
Endergonic reaction- absorbs free energy from surroundings- positive G.
-A cell never reaches equilibrium because it would be dead.
-The product of a reaction doesnt accumulate, it becomes a reactant in the next step and the
final waste products are expel
Electron Transport Chain
-a collection of molecules embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondria in eukaryotic
cells (and plasma membrane in prokaryotes)
-made of proteins and prosthetic groups, nonprotein components essential for the catalytic
Oral Cavity, Pharynx, Esophagus
-ingestion and initial steps of digestion occurs in the mouth (oral cavity)
-mechanical digestion begins as teeth of various shapes cut, smash grind food, making the food
easier to swallow
-animals burn proteins only after exhausting their supply carbohydrates and fats
-excess is converted to storage molecules in liver and muscle cells in the form of glycogen
-insulin and glucagon maintain glucose homeostasis (liver releases insulin, insuli
1. Contraction of the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs via the
2. Pulmonary arteries
3. Blood flows through the capillary beds in the left and right lungs, loading O2 and
4. Oxygen rich blood returns from the lungs via th
-lower hydrostatic pressures with open circulatory systems make them less costly in energy
expenditure-high blood pressures enables effective delivery of oxygen and nutrients in closed
-blood flows in only one dir
Bioenergetics- study of how energy flows through living organisms.
Energy- capacity to cause change.
Kinetic energy- relative motion of objects
Heat/thermal energy- kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or
-If ATP concentration drops, respiration speeds up and vice versa.
-Phosophofructokinase is an enzyme that is the pacemaker because it can be inhibited by ATP,
Citrate from the Citric Acid Cycle, and stimulated by AMP (made from ADP).
Aerobic respiration- oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with organic fuel.
Anaerobic respiration- used by prokaryotes where substances other than oxygen are used to
harvest chemical energy.
-redox reactions are reactions involving electron transfers.