A. Conjunction is a binary operator which connects two statements
a. Use graphical method to describe state of affairs
B. Disjunction
a. We use disjunction in its inclusive sense
a.i. NOT in its exclusive sense
a.ii. Can be expressed by (T v F) & ~(T & F)
A. Today it is raining and I do not have an umbrella
a.i. R & ~U
b. If it rains today and I do not have an umbrella, then I will get a cold
b.i. (R & ~U) C
c. I will get a cold only if it rains today.
c.i. C R
d. I will get a cold if and only if it rains
A. Informal logic = critical thinking
a. Politics, advertising work to exploit critical thinking
B. False cause
a. Confusing a cause with an effect or offering an immediate casual
explanation for an event without considering alternatives, or a casual
rela
A. New Annotation
a. V or
b. ~ Therefore
B. Propositional logic
a. Symbolic language
b. Propositional logic (language) is universal simplifies answer; only one
translation despite the language of the argument
c. Study of propositional logic is concerned b
A
T
F
~A
F
T
A
T
T
F
F
B
T
F
T
F
A&B
T
F
F
F
A
T
T
F
F
B
T
F
T
F
AvB
T
T
T
F
A
T
T
F
F
B
T
F
T
F
AB
T
F
T
T
F
F
F
F
T
Take in account last 2 columns for middle
letter evaluation MIDDLE= ANSWER
(A&B)vC
- Either A &B or C
- Main operator is v
A B C (A&B) v
A. Rule of -& elimination
a. If any conjunction (P&Q) occurs at a line J then at any later line one may
either conjunct, labeling the line J&E
B. Rule of -elimination
a. For any formulas p and q if (pq) occurs at a line J and p occurs at a line
k then q m
A. Traditional linguistics divides language up phonology, morphology, semantics and
syntax
a. Pragmatics cross-cut domains
b. All languages use in real life can be said to be situated
B. Great deal of recent linguistic anthropology has been concerned with
February 1, 2012
A. General criteria in order to judge an argument
a. Truth of the premises
b. Probability of the conclusion
c. Relevance of the premises
d. Vulnerability of the conclusion to new evidences
B. Logic has limitations
a. Logic only deals with
January 27, 2012
A. Logic tutor
a. Landon Elkind
b. Phillips 510A
c. Tuesday: 3:45-4:45
d. Wednesday 9:30-11:30
e. logic@gwu.edu
B. Recognizing arguments
a. In order to evaluate an arguments reasoning, we must 1st recognize its
parts (premises and conclus
A.
B.
C.
D.
January 25, 2012
Arguments can be good arguments from a logical point of view, even if the
premises are false
a. Humans are insects. Socrates is a human. Therefore, Socrates is an insect
We have to make a distinction in logic b/w truth and val
Logic:
For experiment one, if an infant focuses his or her attention on the video of his or
her mother when the word mommy is repeated, then it is possible that the child has
begun to create the connection between the word and the corresponding social fig
A. Fallacy
a. Bad argument
b. The set of arguments that seem to be ok, but have problems in the
inferential process from a logical point of view
c. Different types
c.i. General form
c.i.1.
X says that P therefore P
c.i.2.
Same form of appeal to popularity