Women & Immigration
Immigration is a different experience for women than for men.
Immigrants settle in cities in ethnic enclaves. Children go out to school or work.
Men go out to work.
Immigrant women could go without learning English and some never do.
WOMEN AND WORK 1890-1920
Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) Percent of women who work for wages (Excludes
work on family farms)
1800: 5% 1850: 10%
1900: 20% (+) [40% of black women] [men = 85%] 1920: 23%
[1950: < 30%; 1990: 60% (-) [for both black an
1851: Maine passes a law against the manufacture and sale of alcohol
1855: 13 states followed suit
1869: Prohibition Party founded (strongest in the 1880s)
In the1870s, women in Ohio begin to march from church meetings to the streets, halt
Women in America before 1870
U. S. social, political, and legal structure derived from European models
Religion: Protestantism embedded hierarchies (gender, class, race) but a doctrine of
Each person must have an individual relationship with
Oct. 29, 1929 to Dec. 7, 1941
Economic Crisis Crisis in Gender roles
LFPR of all women:
about 24% at beginning about 28% at end of 1930s
Gain of 2 million women workers LFPR of married women:
1930: 12 1940: 17
(despite explicit discriminati
Declaration of Sentiments- based off Declaration of Independence- was drafted by
Elizabeth Cady Stanton for the women's rights convention at Seneca Falls, New York in
1848 . Important because was the first pronouncement demanding that
women be given the r
II. PROVIDING SECURITY FOR THE FUTURE 1935: Social Security Act (amended in 1939)
Old age insurance
Old age assistance
Relief benefits for the destitute handicapped or blind
Welfare: money for children in single parent families
Turning Point in 1917
1917: North Dakota Nebraska Rhode Island New York Michigan Arkansas
1918: South Dakota Oklahoma Texas
1919: Indiana Maine Missouri Iowa Ohio Minnesota Wisconsin Tennessee
Women could vote for 339 electors out of 53
Reformers Responses Settlement Houses
University Settlement first settlement house, f. 1886, in NYC.
1889: Jane Addams & Ellen Starr open Hull House
1891: 6 settlement house in the US 1910: More than 400.
(RELY ON WOMENS CLUBS FOR FIN
Memoirs of Womanhood
Women living in 20th century America faced adversity. Though the race, region, and
experiences of Judy Blunt and Gloria WadeGiles were different, both of their memoirs
explore their journey to womanhood. Blunts Breaking C
WHAT HAPPENS TO THE PROGRESSIVE WOMENS MOVEMENT?
19th Amendment ratified Women now able to vote in all states
Middle-class white women:
not much change; agricultural depressi