Judging the Extent of Reaction Based on Kc (Kp)
Three general cases:
1. K is large.
Large K means that concentrations (or partial pressures) of
products dominate over the concentrations of reactants. In
other words, the reaction goes almost to
Solids, well you know what they are, but let us describe some properties
On the macroscopic level solids have
Are found at lower temperatures and higher pressures than fluids
On the microscopic level at
States of Matter
1. Which of the following compounds is expected to have the HIGHEST boiling point? Why?
a. CH3OCH3 -b. CH3CH2OH
BECAUSE MOLAR MASS IS HIGHER. BOILING DEPENDS ON # OF CARBONS AND H and amount
Reaction Conditions and the Equilibrium State
Equilibrium may be affected by change in concentration, volume
(pressure), or temperature.
Le Chteliers Principle:
When a chemical system in a state of equilibrium is disturbed,
the reaction proceeds
Svante Arrhenius: The Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation
Separation of a compound into ions in aqueous solution is called
A+ + B
Electrolytic dissociation is a result of ion-dipole
The Conjugate Acid-Base Pair in the Brnsted-Lowry
Acid1 + Base2
Base1 + Acid2
Each Brnsted-Lowry acid-base reaction has an acid and a base as
reactants and as products, and this comprises two conjugate acidbase pairs.
Each acid has a conj
Generally, reactions are reversible: each forward
reaction may proceed in the reverse direction as well.
A reaction is said to reach equilibrium when the rates
of the forward and reverse reactions are equal.
Chapter 17: Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria
Common-Ion Effect on Acid-Base Dissociation
A weak acid HA dissociates in aqueous solution:
HA + H2O
H 3O + + A .
Consider adding to the solution some amount of a salt of this acid, MA.
pH of Strong Bases
Typical strong bases:
Hydroxides of alkali metals, LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, and CsOH,
and alkaline earth metals, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, and Ba(OH)2.
Just a reminder: Strong bases dissociate in aqueous solutions
Calculating Equilibrium Constants
Calculating K when all equilibrium concentrations are
i) Make sure the eqn. of the reaction is balanced.
ii) Write the expression for Kc (or Kp, whichever is suggested).
iii) Substitute the values and so
Solubility of a solute is the amount (in grams or moles) of
solute that may be dissolved in a definite volume of water at
The common units of solubility are g/L and mol/L.
A system where equilibri
Fluids Chapter 11.0-11.4
Both gases and liquids are fluids. Fluids have:
No fixed shape
Deform under an applied force
In fluids on the molecular level:
Molecules are in constant motion
The velocity of the molecules depends on the temperat