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Thermodynamics Study Points (In no particular orderapologies!)
Know the formulas not given to you!
o w = PV
o E = w + q
o H = q/moles
Entropy (S): degree of disorder in a system
o Positive or increase in entropy is favorable
Going from fewer to a greater
Methods of Separation
Methods of Separation of Mixtures
Filtration: porous barrier, usually for separating liquid from solid in a heterogeneous mixture
Distillation: used to separate solutions by taking advantage of differences in boiling points; vapors a
ENTHALPIES OF SOLUTION
1. a) The enthalpy change of solution is the enthalpy change when 1 mole of an ionic substance
dissolves in water to give a solution of infinite dilution.
b) The hydration enthalpy is the enthalpy change when 1 mol
ENTHALPIES OF SOLUTION
1. a) Define the term enthalpy change of solution for an ionic substance such as sodium chloride.
b) Define the term hydration enthalpy for an ion like Na+ or Cl-.
2. The table shows the hydration enthalpies of a
Formation of a Solution
1: Separate the solute into its
individual components (expanding)
Requires energy (endothermic)
2: Overcoming the IMF in the
solvent to make room for the
solute (expanding the solvent)
Electrochemistry Practice Test 2014
A solution of potassium chloride is electrolyzed.
2 H2O (l) + 2 e H2 (g) + 2 OH (aq)
O2 (g) + 4 H+(aq) + 4 e 2 H2O (l)
K+ (aq) + e K (s)
Cl2 (g) + 2 e 2 Cl (aq)
E = 0.83 V
E = 1.23 V
E = 2.92 V
E = 1.
2004 Form B #6
6. The following questions refer to the electrochemical cell shown in the diagram above.
(a) Write a balanced net ionic equation for the thermodynamically favored reaction that takes place in the cell.
(b) Calculate the standard cell potent
Ecell: standard cell potential aka potential difference aka standard electromotive force aka cell voltage
o The degree symbol denotes that this is standard conditions for a cell: 25C, 1.0 atm of pressure, and
1. Draw a diagram of a standard galvanic cell constructed from zinc and copper electrodes, 1.0 M Zn(NO3)2, 1.0 M
Cu(NO3)2, a voltmeter, wires, and a salt bridge. Label the anode and cathode, and indicate the direction of electron
Electrochemistry in a Nutshell:
Voltaic (or Galvanic) Cells: two separate solutions linked by a salt bridge and a wire connecting an electrode in
o NEGATIVE G
o POSITIVE Ecell
Require a salt bridge to keep th