(9)Study Guide-Ch. 4-Sea Floor/ Sediments (1-11-08)
Sections 4.2, 4.3*, 4.4^ * up to and including the sub-section "Source and Chemistry" ^ only the sub-sections "Oil and Gas" and "Gas Hydrates"
1) Know the features of ridges/rises and trenches, and
(23) Study Guide-Ch. 9- The Surface Currents
Sections 9.1, 9.2
1) What sets surface ocean currents in motion?
- prevailing large scale atmospheric surface circulation, a.k.a. WIND
2) Why is the Coriolis effect more effective in the oceans than in the
(24) Study Guide-Ch. 9- The Surface Currents
Sections 9.3, 9.4, 9.5
1) How do current speeds compare to that of the wind?
- 1/100th that of the wind
2) Explain the western
intensification of currents.
the intensification of the western arm
of an oceanic
(26) Study Guide- Ch. 10- The Waves
Sections 10.1 through 10.6*
* excluding the section Episodic Waves
1) List the three primary
generating forces of
- 1 - wind
- 2 - large atmospheric storms
- 3 - ocean currents
2) What is the primary restor
(29) Study Guide-Ch. 10- The Waves
1) What are the four primary causes of a tsunami?
- 1 earthquakes
- 2 volcanic eruptions ( especially
on the sea floor)
- 3 landslides ( both into the oceans
- 4 meteor, asteroid, or comet
(30) Study Guide-Ch. 10- The Waves
Section 10.6* (sub-section on Episodic Waves)
1) What is a rogue wave?
- a huge, nearly breaking, steep wave that comes out of the blue, creating holes in the sea
before crashing down oh ships in the open sea, sinking ma
(31) Study Guide-Ch. 11-The Tides
Section 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4 11.5, 11.6, 11.7
1) Know the difference between diurnal, semi-diurnal and mixed
- diurnal: the tide has one high tide and one low tide per day
- semi- diurnal: has two high tides and
(32) Study Guide-Ch. 12 Coasts, Beaches and Estuaries
Section 12.1, 12.2, 12.4
1) Describe the differences between the coastal zone, shore and
- coastal zone: includes open coasts, semi-isolated and
sheltered bays, and estuaries
- shore: the part o
Ch9 up to milankovich cycles
North atlantic is the coldest densest water on planet, saltiest ocean
Drives the global conveyor belt of currents
3 MILANKOVICH CYCLES
ECCENTRICITY SHAPE OF EARTHS ORBIT
AXIAL TILT INCLINATION OF EARTHS AXIS OF ROTAITON
15.2: Ch. 15 Environmental Issues
Oil spills: the transport of oil creates the potential for
accidents that release large amounts of oil and expose
the worlds coasts and estuaries to spills
Average of 24 spills per year in the 1970s, decreased t
9.1: Ch. 9 The Surface Currents
Surface Currents and Gyres:
Surface currents are SET IN MOTION by the prevailing
scale atmospheric SURFACE CIRCULATION (WINDS)
Like atmospheric flow, ocean currents are DEFLECTED
BY THE CORIOLIS EF
(22) Study Guide-Ch. 8- Circ. and Ocean Structure
Sections 8.1, 8.2, 8.3
1) What condition (stable, unstable, neutral) produces a density
2) What is the thermohaline circulation?
-thermohaline circulation: the resulting conve
(21) Study Guide-Ch. 8-Circ. and Ocean Structure
1) How does the density of sea water change with increases and
decreases in temperature, salinity and pressure?
-increase in temperature: decrease in density
-increase in salinity: increase in d
(8) Study Guide-Ch. 4-Sea Floor/ Sediments (1-8-08)
Sections 4.1, 4.2
1) How are ocean depths measured?
-precision depth recorders (best way), underwater: cameras, television, robots, side scan sonar systems.etc.
What is a "fathom?"
-the distance b
(4)-Study Guide-Ch. 3 Plate Tectonics (1-30-08)
Sections 3.1, 3.2* Not including subsection "Isostasy"
1- What is the age of Earth?
-approximately 4.6 billion yrs. old
2-Explain why the "Big Whack!" Theory best explains the creation of the Moon.
(3)Study Guide- Ch-2 The Watery Planet (1-28-08)
Section 2.6 1- Know the primary reservoirs of water and rough "residence times."
-reservoir: all places where water resides on Earth - residence times: the time water spends in a reservoir Examples:
Oceans Exam 2 Review
The Water Molecule o A most common substance with most uncommon properties o Water molecule consists of 2 hydrogen atoms (H2) and one oxygen atom (O) o H atoms are positively charged, O atoms are negatively charged o Triangular
As Observations Confirm o Expect warm water near equator and coldest waters in polar region due to variational solar heating o Expect lower than average salinity in high precipitation regions which decreases salinity tropical precipita
1. Divergent plate boundaries: pushing away from one another (Ex: spreading centers we find
ridges and rises here as well as rift valleys there are volcanoes pure basalt magma earthquakes
here are shallow here)
2. Convergent plate boundaries: moving towar
- Earthquakes > vibrations or seismic waves > reveal Earths internal structure,
- vibrations also by >volcanic eruptions, landslides and human-made explosions
- Speed depends on chemistry, density and physical state (solid, parti
Measuring Ocean Depth
- Greek geographer Posidonius used a large rock attached to a rope; first known sounding.
- Evolved-hand line and wire marked with units of fathoms; greased lead weight on end sampled bottom
- In deep water, lines and weig
(17) Study Guide- Ch-7 The Atmosphere
Sections 7.1, 7.2
1) Explain how heat capacity of land and oceans shapes the
-heat capacity of land is much lower than that of oceans, therefore seasonal temperature
variation is much greater on land,
9.2: Ch. 9 The Surface Currents
Current Flow and its Western Intensification:
surface currents have speeds 1/100th that of the wind; typically
0.1 to 0.5 m/sec, but in narrow passages can reach
All currents transport large amounts of