1. Life occurs in the physical universe and, as such is bound by the laws that govern
material and energetic transformations (i.e. Chemistry and Physics)
2. Life depends absolutely on the special organization found only in cells.
Biology 121 2/24/2014
Biology macromolecules that do not dissolve in H2O
Mostly nonpolar component
A. Variety of Lipids
A. E.g., Steroids- flat rings- non polar
B. Fatty Acids
Components of many other lipids
Biology 122 1/27/2014
Atoms of the same kind (i.e. atoms of an element) have the same atomic number.
But they can vary in their mass number.
Isotopes: Atoms of the same element having different mass.
Isotopes -> Useful in research and medicine
Biology 121 2/10/2014
Only purine-pyrimidine pairs fit inside the double helix
Purine- purine pair NOT ENOUGH SPACE
Pyrimidine- pyrimidine pair TOO MUCH APCE
Purine- pyrimidine pair JUST RIGHT
B) Hydrogen Bonding
Hydrogen bonds form between G
Biology 2 3/12/2014
Exam #2 Room LC21 from 7:30pm-8:30pm
Inside the Cell
1) Cells have the unique composition and structural organization that allow them to carry out all
of the processes of life.
2) Molecular zip codes aid material transport
Biology 122 1/31/2014
Interactions between Non-Polar Molecules
Hydrophobic (water hating)
Non- polar molecules do not interact with H2O
Repulsed by water
1) Water cannot interact well with nonpolar molecules.
2) Water molecules are forced to form a hi
Biology 122 1/29/2014
When you have a single bond there is free rotation, if there is a double bond the rotation is
Sometimes the difference in electronegativity between 2 reacting atoms:
a) Is not large enough for one atom to completely steal
Biology 122 2/7/2014
Chemical structure of Nucleic Acids
Building blocks = Nucleotides.
Nucleotide- sugar + base+ phosphate (Acidic)
- Ribose: 5 membered ring
b. - 2- deoxyribose: sugar found in DNA nucleotides.
DNA= Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Biology 122 2/3/2014
H2O H+ + OH-
[H+] = [OH] = 10-7 M
When [H+] > 10-7, water solution becomes Acidic
When [H+] < 10-7, water solution becomes Basic
When [H+] = 10-7, water solution becomes Neutral
pH Measure of how acidic or basic an aqueou
Biology 121 3/5/2014
The probability that crossing over between two linked genes increases with the distance between
the genes on the chromosome.
Frequency of Recombination = 100 x (No. Recombinants in offsprings/Total)
The distance between two genes on a
Biology 121 2/12/2014
A. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Carries portions of genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes.
B. Transfer RNA (tRNA)
Carries amino acids to the ribosomes
C. Ribosome RNA (rRna)
Major component of the ribosomes
Codons= sequence of 3
Biology 121 2/28/2014
Process: Bacterial Cell Division
1. DNA is copied and protein filaments attach.
2. DNA copies are separated; ring of protein forms.
3. Ring of Protein draws in membrane
4. Fission Complete
Eukaryotic cells reproduce by Mitosi
Biology 121 3/7/2014
One Gene may affect more than one Phenotype
Example: Gene responsible for Marfan syndrome
Marfans Syndrome Connective Tissue Disorder
Increased height; Long limbs and fingers
Abnormal shaped chest; Several heart problems
Biology 121 3/3/2014
Genetics: Study of Inheritance
Q: What rules govern the transmission of inherited traits from one generation to another?
Prevailing Hypothesis in the 19th century:
Blending Inheritance: Parental traits blend to form traits in the of
Biology 121 2/26/2014
Three types of lipids found in cells (steroids, fatty acids, and phospholipids) are insoluble in
water because they all possess a significant component of hydrocarbons.
Tyriglycerides can be said by three molecules of water are relea
Biology 121 2/17/2014
2. Peptide Bond has partial double bond characteristics
3. Partial double bond
a) Confers partial charges on O & N
b) Restricts rotation about the peptide bond
Trans form is the most common type you would find
Primary Structure: Sequ
Biology 122 1/24/14
4. Make a prediction
5. Design and Perform the experiment
6. Evaluate the question
7. Unbaised Conclusion
To do a research, Scientist needs funding and they are not funded by t
Biology 121 2/19/2014
Many proteins act as enzymes
Speeds up specifically (>1,000,000 times)
They are not consumers in the chemical reactions. Can be used over and over again.
Polyhyrohy Alcohol + (aldehyde or ketone)
Chapter 12 & 22: Principles of Development and Cancer
During development, cells divide, move or expand in a directed manner, become
specialized (differentiated), and interact with other cells.
Cells become specialized because they express dif