Chapter 5:
Measures of Variability
The Importance of Measuring Variability
IQV (Index of Qualitative Variation)
The Range
IQR (Inter-Quartile Range)
Variance
Standard Deviation
Considerations for choosing a measure of
variation
Chapter 5 1
The Importance
REALISM AND 18TH- AND 19TH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
April 12, 2016
IMAGES:
1
Gustave Courbet, The Stone Breakers, 1849. Oil on canvas, 53 x 86,
formerly at Gemldegalerie, Dresden (destroyed 1945). [Gardner 22-26]
2
Jean-Franois Millet, The Gleaners, 1857, oil
Chapter 5:
Measures of Dispersion
(Variability)
Ms. Sonya Worthington
Measures of Variability
defined as statistics that use a SINGLE number to
describe diversity or variation in a distribution
focused around measures of central tendency
tells us how f
Chapter 8: Estimation
Estimation Defined
Confidence Levels
Confidence Intervals
Confidence Interval Precision
Standard Error of the Mean
Sample Size
Standard Deviation
Confidence Intervals for Proportions
Chapter 8 1
Estimation Defined:
Knowledge abo
Measures of
Central Tendency
Chapter 4
Ms. Sonya Worthington
Describing a Distribution.What do
we want to know?
2 types of statistics that help describe and
summarize data using a SINGLE NUMBER
(1) Measures of Central Tendency
-statistics that summarize a
Chapt. 1, Intro to SPSS and Math
Review
*Reminder: Calculators w/ Square Root
function
*Quick Example of Research Question
Step #3 Collecting Data
(continued)
Cumulative property of levels: higher order scales
(interval-ratio) can be transformed into lowe
Graphic Presentation
Statistics for Sociologists 221 - Fall 2013 - Hourigan
Graphic Presentation
When writing up results for publications,
many people prefer graphs because they
tell stories in pictures, not just numbers
Can show patterns (graphs) and s
Chapter 4
Measures of Central Tendency
What is a measure of central tendency?
Measures of Central Tendency
Mode
Median
Mean
Shape of the Distribution
Choosing an Appropriate Measure of Central
Tendency
Chapter 4 1
What is a Measure of Central
Tende
Review: Spurious
Relationships
Example: (Where X=IV, Y=DV, and Z=Control Variable)
When we put our data into partial tables by categories of
control variable, Z, the relationship (% differences across
columns) between X and Y decreases significantly or
di
Chapter 12:
Measures of Association for
Nominal and Ordinal Variables
Proportional Reduction of Error (PRE)
Degree of Association
For Nominal Variables
Lambda
For Ordinal Variables
Gamma
Using Gamma for Dichotomous Variables
Chapter 12 1
Measures o
Chapter 6: Normal Distributions
Up to now, we have spent most of our time
looking at empirical distributions
The normal distribution, however, is
different than the distributions we have
looked at
Normal Distribution: is a theoretical
distribution that
Chapter 7:
Sampling and Sampling Distributions
Aims of Sampling
Basic Principles of Probability
Types of Random Samples
Sampling Distributions
Sampling Distribution of the Mean
Standard Error of the Mean
The Central Limit Theorem
Chapter 7 1
Sampling
Sam
Chapter 10: Cross-Tabulation
Relationships Between Variables
Independent and Dependent Variables
Constructing a Bivariate Table
Computing Percentages in a Bivariate Table
Properties of a Bivariate Relationship
Elaboration- Spuriousness, intervening,
Testing Hypotheses 261
Figure 9.1 Sampling Distribution of Sample Means Assuming H0 Is True for a Sample N = 100
= $2.86
Y
Y
= $3.11
Because this distribution of sample means is normal, we can use Appendix B to determine the probability of drawing a samp
Graphic Presentation
When writing up results for publications, many
people prefer graphs because they tell stories
in pictures, not just numbers
Can show patterns (graphs) and specific data
about statistically significant differences
(tables) more quickly
Chapter 12:
Measures of Association for
Nominal and Ordinal Variables
Proportional Reduction of Error (PRE)
Degree of Association
For Nominal Variables
Lambda
For Ordinal Variables
Gamma
Using Gamma for Dichotomous Variables
Chapter 12 1
Measures o
Chapter 9: Testing Hypotheses
Overview
Research and null hypotheses
One and two-tailed tests
Type I and II Errors
Testing the difference between two
means
t tests
Frankfort-Nachmias and Leon-Guerrero, Statistics for a Diverse Society, 6e
2011 SAGE Publi
Week 11 Resource Endowment- water resources
Water-a critical resource of Africa-a resource that is
fundamental for any type of development, is unevenly
distributed across the continent of Africa. The scarcity of
water is the defining constraint that sever
Week 5.2
Pre-Colonial era
The cradle of humankind
The English naturalist Charles Darwin proposed his theory of
evolution in 1859. he suggested that the birthplace oh humankind
was probably Africa. This created a great controversy in Europe
because of reli
Week 2 Early prehistory of Africa: the cradle of
humankind
Charles Darwin first proposed his theory of
evolution in 1859(The Origin of Species) and his
theory to the origins of human beings in 18 71 (The
Descent of Man). In that, he suggested that the
bir
Politics in the 1960s
November 2, 2016
Song: Beach Boys, Im Waiting for
the Day
Introduction
Goal of Lecture: to discuss politics in the 1960s and
especially liberalism (and liberal programs) at high
tide.
Argument of lecture: the main driver of liberal
ANT 201
CONSPIRACY THEORIES AND DENIALISM
Distinction between real conspiracies and grand
conspiracies or PCTs
Examples of real conspiracies?
Church hiding pedophile priests; doping in pro-cycling
Primary distinction is one of underlying logic:
Forming
The Rise of Segregation in the
late 19th Century South
September 19, 2016
Song: Good Lord (Run Old Jeremiah), Austin
Coleman and Joe Brown Washington
Introduction Part 1
Stability and Change in the Late 19th Century South
Rural agriculture, growth of ci
AANT 201
Cryptozoology
Definition
Crypto=Hidden; Zoology=study of animals
Study of undiscovered animals
i.e. the study of something we dont know actually exists
Many new animal species discovered every year
But, all small animals in remote locations
PSEUDOARCHAEOLOGY
Aliens and Atlantis and other crazy
stuf
What archaeology is (and isnt)
Understanding past cultures through material
culture
As opposed to treasure hunting and looting
Fragmentary evidence lends arch to God of the Gaps, Ad
Ignorantum, an
Chapter 9
Testing Hypotheses
Statistical Hypothesis Testing
A procedure that allows us to evaluate
hypotheses about population parameters
based on sample statistics
Statistical Hypothesis Testing
Hypothesis
The average price of gas in California is hig
Chapter 8
Estimation
Estimation
A process whereby we select a random sample
from a population and use a sample statistic to
estimate a population parameter
We can use sample proportions as estimates
of population proportions, sample means as
estimates o
Chapter 6
The Normal Distribution
Normal Distribution
A bell-shaped and symmetrical theoretical
distribution, with the mean, the median, and
the mode all coinciding at its peak and with
frequencies gradually decreasing at both ends
of the curve
Also ter
Chapter 7
Sampling and Sampling Distributions
Sampling
Population
A group that includes all the cases in which the
researcher is interested
Individuals, objects, or groups
Sample
A relatively small subset from a population
Notation
Table 7.1 Sample a