Sapolskys studies with baboons
Baboons in Africa
Strong social hierarchy - some are highly dominant and others
Subordinate males have high levels of stress corresponding with high
Damage to the brain occurs as wel
Sex, ethnicity, and body weight can alter response.
Medications can be harmful and overprescribed.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): brief electrical pulses to the brain which
produce a seizure and treat serious psychological prob
Water and pH:
What type of bond connects the hydrogens to the oxygen within one water molecule?
What type of bond attracts one water molecule to another?
What is a hydrogen bond? Is it strong or weak?
What are the relative H+ and OH- ion concentrations at
What are the following: Metabolism? Anabolism? Catabolism?
What are enzymes, and how do they work? What is the importance of the active site?
What is a substrate?
What is the importance of ATP to cells?
Which requires and which releases ene
Shape Constancy, Size Constancy, Color Constancy
Selective attention: the process of focusing on one sensory channel and ignoring
For example, The cocktail party effect
How does the brain do it when there are so many aspects to
Many different functions
Motor coordination and balance
Cerebellum Size: Cross-Species Perspective
Thalamus: The brains train station
All sensory information goes through here
What are sensation and perception? What are the basic principles?
Explore how our minds construct our perceptions.
Discuss the ways we sense and perceive visual, auditory, somatosensory, olfactory, and
Sensation vs. Perce
The brain fills in missing information: corpus callosum
Gestalt principles: the perception of objects as wholes within a context, not isolated
lines and curves.
We perceive objects as wholes when they display:
Proximity: are close togeth
Processing emotional memories
Integrating new experiences with established memories
Learning new strategies and ways of doing things
Simulating threatening events so we can better cope with them in
Reorganizing and consolid
Types of Chemicals In Brain
Endogenous occurs naturally within the body (neurotransmitters)
Exogenous introduced from outside the body (drugs)
*In order for drugs to work, they MUST cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB).
Effects of drugs
Associated with cataplexy: muscle atonia while awake
REM sleep is immediate
Breathing is halted for as much as 20s.
Frequent periods of wakefulness as a result.
17% increase in death risk.
Rx: weight loss, bre
Marijuana produced in the brain
may influence the release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron
Regulates fear, nausea, pain and more
The active ingredient in marijuana binds to the cannabinoid receptor
Marijuana can be used to treat Alzheimers
Consciousness & Sleep
Circa= close to, about
Includes behavioral (eating, sex, socializing) and physiological (temperature
Why should we care about circadian rhythms?
Jet lag & Social
Stress and Health
What is stress?
How we adapt to stress
The brain-body reaction to stress
Coping with stress
Promoting good health
What is Stress?
Stress is the tension, discomfort, or physical symptoms that arise when a stressor
strains our ability t
Cells are information-processing systems
Information in DNA used to direct synthesis of cellular components
Control of gene expression leads to different cells/ tissue types
Cells process environmental information
Glucose levels, presence of hormones
Chapter 3 The chemical building blocks of life
1. Know the names and be able to identify the functional groups illustrated in
2. What is the difference between a polymer and a monomer?
3. How are polymers synthesized and broken apart?
4. What m
Chapter 4 Cell Structure
1. Why is it advantageous for cells to be small?
2. What is resolution?
a. What is the resolving power of the human eye vs. a light microscope vs. an
b. What type of microscope do you need to see blood cells,
Chapter 2 The Nature of Molecules and Properties of Water
1. What are atoms made of?
2. What is the difference between atomic number and atomic mass?
3. What are ions?
4. What is the difference between cations and anions
5. What are isotopes?
6. What is t
Molecular basis of inheritance
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Sequence of 4 nucleotides encode cells information
Gene discrete unit of information
Genome entire set of DNA instructions
Continuity of life depends on faithful copying of DNA into daughter cells
Lesson 1 DNA Template Preparation
Why is it necessary to chelate the metal ions out of solution during the boiling/lysis
step at 100C?
What would happen if you did not put in the InstaGene matrix?
What is needed from the cells to conduct the polymerase ch
The Nature of Science
Living systems show hierarchical organization
Atoms, molecules, organelles, cells
Cell is the basic unit of life
Tissues, organs, organ systems
The Nature of Science
Living systems show hierarchical or
Is a body of interconnected concepts
Is supported by much experimental evidence and scientific reasoning
Expresses ideas of which we are most certain
Compare to general meaning of theory
Implies a lack of knowledge or a guess
Plants use starch
Animals use glycogen
Plants use cellulose
Arthropods and fungi use chitin
Polymer nucleic acids
sugar + phosphate + nitrogenous base
sugar is deoxyribose in DNA or ribo
ATP adenosine triphosphate
Primary energy currency of the cell
NAD+ and FAD+
Electron carriers for many cellular reactions
Protein functions include:
Proteins are polymers
D-sugars and L-amino acids
Polymer built by linking monomers
Monomer small, similar chemical subunits
Formation of large molecules by the removal of water
Monomers are joined to form polymers
Common elements of secondary structure seen in many polypeptides
Useful in determining the function of unknown proteins
Functional units within a larger structure
Most proteins made of multiple domains that perform different parts of
Scientists use a systematic approach to gain understanding of the natural world
A hypothesis is a possible explanation for an observation
Must be tested to determine its val
Darwin and Evolution
Darwin saw that although every organism has the potential to produce more
offspring, only a limited number do survive and reproduce themselves
Darwin and Evolution
Evidence supporting Darwins theory has only grown