The study of living organisms
Living organisms share characteristics that separate them from
the abiotic (non-living) world
Composed of _
Organisms are _
Measuring Evolutionary Change
Gradual changes in allele and genotype frequencies in populations
Estimate allele frequencies for a given locus by _
_from a population
Sum of all allele frequencies at a locus = 1
Measures of allele frequency range
Life cycle of an organism linked to cell division
For cell division to occur:
Initiates cell division
Originates inside or outside the cell
Replication of DNA
Each daughter cell has complete, iden
Origin of Life
First level at which life occurs
All biological systems _
Bonded in _
Variety/ diversity in organisms
Dictates behavior of molecule
Organic molecules consist mainly of hydrogen and carbon
Building block & smallest unit of life
Perform functions of life
Cells are the fundamental units of life
All cells come from preexisting cells
Diversity of modern cells
Evolution by natural selection
Meiosis Genetic Variation
Two parents contribute genes to offspring
Not cloning _
Mixes genetic info of two different individuals that
each have different forms of heritable traits
Offspring with different combination
Helps organism survive un
Front to back (protostomes)
Growth by adding continuously to the body
Back to front (Deuterostomes)
Growth by molting
What makes an animal an animal?
Acquire energy by consuming others
Rod of tissue extending from head to tail
Stiffens body when muscles contract during movement
Simpler chordates (most distantly related to vertebrates) retain
How do plant hormones affect plant growth and development?
Seeds do not usually sprout in the winterhow do they know when to germinate? Grocery stores need
to have ripe, unbruised produce to sell to the public, but often this produce i
Enzymes and Cellular Regulation
What are the factors that regulate the rate at which enzymes catalyze reactions?
Digestive enzymes are protein-based biological catalysts that play important roles in our lives. They help
remove stains from our shirts,
How do organisms regulate complex systems through chemical interactions?
The heating system of a house works to keep the temperature constant. If the house gets too cold,
then the heat automatically turns on to warm the house. The
The Hardy-Weinberg Equation
How can we make predictions about the characteristics of a population?
Punnett squares provide an easy way to predict the possible genotypes for an offspring, but it is not practical to perform a Punnett square analysis on
Control of Blood Sugar Levels
What hormones are involved in the homeostasis of blood sugar?
All living things use glucose as a source of energy. In vertebrates it is critical that the levels of glucose in
the blood are consistent. Small fluctuations
HS Chemistry POGIL Activity
Topic: Measurement: Scientific Mathematics
Unit Dimensional Analysis Activity Version 2
In this activity we will see that it is possible to look at a situation from several points of view, or
to take measurements of that s
The Statistics of Inheritance
How can statistics help predict the traits of offspring?
The randomization of alleles from the parents genetic material is essential to the survival and evolution of
a species. If the combinations of alleles that make up
Selection and Speciation
How can changes in a population result in the formation of a new species?
Have you ever wondered how the great diversity of life on Earth has come about or how a single new species forms? Environmental pressures may cause pop
How does sexual reproduction lead to genetic variation?
Cells reproduce through mitosis to make exact copies of the original cell. This is done for growth and
repair. Sexually-reproducing organisms have a second form of cell division that pro
How do you know if your data is the result of random chance or environmental factors?
Biologists and other scientists use relationships they have discovered in the lab to predict events that might
happen under more real-life circumstances.
Cell Cycle Regulation
How does a cell know it is time to divide?
Quality control inspectors typically do not limit their product testing to the final product at the end of
the assembly line. They monitor all aspects of production in hopes of preventi
Control of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes
How do prokaryotes use operons to control gene expression?
Houses usually have a light source in every room, but it would be a waste of energy to leave every light on
all the time, so there are switches to tu
How do living things grow and repair themselves?
Living things must grow and develop. At times they suffer injuries or damage, or cells simply wear out.
New cells must be formed for the organism to survive. What process must occur to make a n
The Cell Cycle
What controls the life and development of a cell?
An old piece of poetry says to everything there is a season. a time to be born, a time to die. For cells,
the line might say a time to divide and a time to grow. In multicellular organi
What mistakes can occur when DNA is replicated?
The genes encoded in your DNA result in the production of proteins that perform specific functions
within your cells. Various environmental factors and spontaneous events can lead to c
How do cells synthesize polypeptides and convert them to functional proteins?
The message in your DNA of who you are and how your body works is carried out by cells through gene
expression. In most cases this means synthesi
How is mRNA synthesized and what message does it carry?
DNA is often referred to as a genetic blueprint. In the same way that blueprints contain the instructions
for construction of a building, the DNA found inside the nu
Signal Transduction Pathways
What happens inside of a cell when a signal has been received?
When cells release signal molecules (ligands) to send a message, and the message is received, a whole
host of events take place inside the cell. The ultimate
How do light-dependent and light-independent reactions provide food for a plant?
Plants are the original solar panels. Through photosynthesis a plant is able to convert electromagnetic
(light) energy into chemical energy. This energy i
ATPThe Free Energy Carrier
How does the ATP molecule capture, store, and release energy?
A sporting goods store might accept a $100 bill for the purchase of a bicycle, but the corner store will not
take a $100 bill when you buy a package of gum. That