Chapter 60: Heme metabolism and jaundice
1. What is heme?
Heme is an iron porphyrin, prosthetic group containing Fe+2 in its core which binds to and carries oxygen. It is largely
planar, non-polar, cyclic, and very stable molecule that consists of a singl
Chapter 34: Membrane Structure and Function
What are the characteristics of biological membranes?
Hydrophobic tails (non-polar) are lipid soluble
Hydrophilic heads (polar) are water soluble
Selectively permeable not passive
Chapter 36: Signal Transduction
1. What is signal transduction?
Signal transduction is a term coined by Martin Rodbell. It transmits the molecular signal from a cells exterior via a first
messenger into the cells interior via a secondary messenger in orde
Chapter 38: Preparation for DNA Replication
1. What is DNA replication?
DNA replication is the synthesis of a new DNA chain during the duplication of the whole genome.
What are some of the characteristics of DNA replication?
High fidelity but NOT 100%
Chapter 35: G Proteins
1. What are G proteins?
G proteins are guanine nucleotide binding regulatory proteins that are large, ubiquitous proteins present in eukaryotic and
prokaryotic cells. G proteins are named after their intracellular link to guanine nu
Chapter 53 Lipoproteins
1. What are lipoproteins?
Lipoproteins are spherical aggregates of phospholipid and protein which transport lipids.
Lipoproteins are amphipathic because they have:
A hydrophobic core rich in triglycerides and cholesteryl esters (l
Chapter 45: Regulation of Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotes
1. Compare protein synthesis in prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
DNA is circular and double helical
No nuclear membrane transcription and translation can
Chapter 49: Fed, Fasting and Starving
Glycolysis metabolizes glucose
Gluconeogenesis metabolizes energy sources back to glucose
Glycogenesis synthesis of glycogen
Glycogenolysis break down of glycogen
Lipogenesis conversion of excess carbohyd
Chapter 66: Organ Function Tests
What is an organ function test and why is it useful?
Organ function tests is a collective term for a variety of individual tests and procedures that evaluate organ function. Organ function
tests are useful for detecting
Chapter 37: Deoxyribonucleic acid
1. What is DNA?
DNA is the unit of genetic inheritance.
What is the structure of DNA?
Deoxyribose pentose sugar
Nitrogenous bases (A, G, T, C)
What is similar about the structure of proteins a
Chapter 42: Genetic Code
1. What are the properties of the genetic code?
2. How is the amino acid sequence in a protein dictated by the sequence of bases in DNA?
3. How is the genetic code used to determine primary structure of a protein?
4. What does it
Diabetes Comparison Chart
Type I diabetes
Auto-antibodies attack its pancreas
(pancreatic atrophy) and causes
autoimmune destruction of the insulin
producing -cells insulin is not produced.
real insulin deficiency
Chapter 48: Principles of Nutrition
Principles of Nutrition
Why is good nutrition important?
Optimum diet can prevent hypertension, coronary artery disease, cancer, and other chronic degenerative diseases. Good
nutrition can also prevent disease and sh
Chapter 41: RNA and transcription
1. What is transcription?
Transcription is the creation of mRNA from the DNA template. It is the process by which DNA-dependent RNA polymerase makes
mRNA from the DNA template.
What is important about how DNA is transc
Comes in a variety of biologically active
Retinol, Retinal, Retinoic Acid
-Synthesized from isoprene subunits
Can be found in:
Chicken Liver, Butter, Whole Milk, Fruit, Egg
Chapter 40: Mutations and DNA Repair
1. Why is DNA repaired?
DNA replication is a high fidelity process; however, there are some mistakes in DNA replication. Additionally, the DNA can
become damaged by other factors so it must be repair. DNA is the only b
Chapter 44: Regulation of Protein Synthesis in Prokaryotes
1. What are some of the characteristic features of prokaryotes?
Circular, double stranded DNA
No histones in prokaryotic DNA complex
No nuclear envelope to separate the gene and cytoplasm
Chapter 43: Protein Synthesis
1. What is the central dogma?
The central dogma explains the flow of genetic material from DNA to RNA to proteins.
How does genetic information flow?
Genetic information flows from DNA RNA protein. DNA is copied into RNA (
Chapter 59: Iron Metabolism
1. Why is iron so important to the body?
Iron is an inorganic cation that plays a central role in multiple biochemical events. Iron-containing enzymes and
proteins participate in many biological oxidations and in transport. It
Chapter 52: Obesity
1. What is obesity?
Obesity is a chronic relapsing condition that reduces life expectancy. It is a disorder of energy metabolism.
2. What is the main problem with energy metabolism causing obesity?
Obesity is an energy metabolism disor
Chapter 50: Integration of metabolism
What is important about the metabolism of the brain?
The brain has a high metabolic rate
The brain does not store any energy in metabolic fuel reserves
ATP is the used in the brain to sustain the Na+/K+ pump to
Chapter 65: Plasma Proteins
What is plasma?
Plasma is the liquid portion of blood. It is an aqueous mixture of nutrients, salts, respiratory gases, hormones and blood
proteins. Over 70% of the solid material in the plasma is protein.
What are plasma
Chapter 68: Alcohol Metabolism
What is the functional definition of alcoholism?
Alcoholism is the consumption of alcohol to the point where normal social, sexual or vocational functioning is significantly
impaired. Usually 50% of caloric intake is in t
Chapter 56: Diabetes mellitus
1. What is diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most chronic endocrine disorders worldwide. However, it is best described as a
syndrome because it is a complex, chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat and protein
Chapter 67: Enzyme diagnostics
Why are plasma enzymes assayed?
Plasma enzymes and their isoenzymes are assays to indicate organ damage.
What is the definition of an isoenzyme?
An isoenzyme is the same enzyme that catalyzes the same reaction but is d
Chapter 57: Diabetic Complications
1. Why is diabetes considered insidious?
Diabetes is insidious because the effects of diabetes are gradual and subtle but have very harmful effects. It is the
third leading cause of death in the U.S. and is the primary c
Chapter 39: DNA replication
1. Where does DNA replication begin for prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
DNA replication begins at the origin of replication for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes; however, in
prokaryotes there is only one origin of replication and in
Liver attached to the
membranes of biliary
Liver and bone
isoenzymes can be
-Most abundant cation in the
-Most is present in the bone
(99% stored in bone and teeth)
-Found in milk products and
fortified foods [best sources]
(absorbed from the GIT through