Video Notes Molecular Biology
Taq polymerase can handle different temperatures.
PCR make copies that are exactly the same.
The glue is like the hydrogen bonds, the gel electrophoresis measures the sizing by
concentration and the PCR actually makes copies
Video notes operon
This basically means to operate, the word operon.
The lac operon is design for e coli to break lactose. The e coli adjust to the environment that
might contain lactose.
The repressor is just a protein and the corepressor changes the sha
Another way of making medically useful products in large amounts is pharming:the production of
pharmaceuticals in farm animals or plants. Two insulin peptides are then combined to make a
complete functional human insulin molecule.
Expression vectors allow
17.4 Reproductive isolation is reinforced when diverging species come into contact
Pre zygotic isolating mechanism prevent hybridization; postzygotic isolating mechanisms
reduce the fitness of hybrids.
Post zygotic isolating mechanisms lead reinforcement
Video Notes RNA and DNA part 2
They both have a sugar phosphate and base.
Replication for DNA is for cell replication
Only can add nucleotides to the 3.
Central Dogma explains how dna make rna and how rna makes protein.
Transcription and translation.
Video Notes Gene regulation
Regulatory genes is the beginning of the operon and it makes the enzyme most of the
regulation is for transcription.
E coli breaks down all our food.
The tata that is about the gene that allows the rna polymerase to go on.
Video Notes AP Biology labs
A plasmid looks a PGLo
The amp has the on and off switch.
The LB is considered the plasmid
There are different types of repeats for that specific person
There is a link between transpiration and energy dynamics in which they cr
Video notes Mutation
Mutations are changes in DNA.
Spontaneous mutation, common kind is strand slippage.
Induced mutation is by carcinogenic
Inversion can switch
Video Notes Molecular Biology
Passing dna between the two, this causes pglo to make recombinants.
A section of dna from plasmids needs to be pick up.
Unless the get the amp, they arent actually going to grow. And the sugar nutrients allows
colonies as wel
-Groups of genes are linked together to -demonstrate physical entities.
Chromosomal theory of inheritance- proposes that mendel's genes are present in the
chromosomes of the cell's nucleus/ this was discovered by sea urchins because people
had to wait for
11.4 Eukaryotic Gene expression can be regulated after transcription
There are many point at which regulation can occur after the initial gene transcript is made.
DIfferent meRNA can be made from gene by alternative splicing
If introns were to be spliced
11.3 Eukaryotic genes are regulated by transcription factors and DNA changes
In this concept we will describe the mechanisms that results in the selective transcription of
specific eukaryotic genes.
Both types of cells of prokaryotes and eukaryotes use DN
The goal of cloning by recombinant DNA techniques is often elucidate the function of specific
DNA sequences, including regulatory and coding regions, and the protein they encode.]
The original is obtained from multiple sources.
A genomic library is a coll
A gene is a specific sequence of DNA that resides at a is located in the chromosome that some
call the locus.
Genetic linkage of genes on a single chromosome alters their pattern of inheritance.
Morgan testcross didnt agree with mendels laws because it co
13.1 Recombinant DNA can be made in the Laboratory
More recently, it has become more possible to genetically modify organisms with genes from,
other distantly related organism, to create new combination of genes that not otherwise occur in
the same cell.
Some protein variations are affected by the outside environment and the development stage of
a cell. Such as cell transduction, cyclin and virus infections.-Constructive genes are actively
expressed all the time.
Other times, gene expr
40.1 Excretory System Maintain Homeostasis of the Extracellular Fluid
Animals must depend on the excretory system to maintain the volume, concentration and
composition of the extracellular fluid.
Regulation the volume of fluid in the body
Regulation the o
16.1 All of life is connected through its evolutionary History
The evolutionary history of these relationships (with a common ancestor) are known as
phylogeny, and a phylogenetic tree is a diagrammatic reconstruction of that history.
-they used to be cons
Population Ecology Lecture notes 4/12/17
Scientific goal- understanding the factors that influence the size of the populations
Management of populations
Decrease population size
10.2 DNA expression begins with it transcription to rna
Transcription has several components
A dna template for complementary base pairing
Four ribonucleoside triphosphates. ATP GTP CTP and UTP
RNA polymerase enzyme
The same transcription process makes
9.2 DNA Replicates semiconservatively
Genetic material is replicated completely and accurately during the cell cycle. This is
semiconservative replication, meaning each strand of the parental DNA acts as a
template for a new strand.
9.3 Mutations are heritable changes in DNA
A mutation may result in a new allele of a gene, and different alleles may produce different
phenotypes based on the changed nucleotide sequence.
Somatic mutation- happen in the body cell
Germline mutation- happe
10.1 Genetic show that genes code for protein
The connection between genes/phenotype and protein was made before it was known that DNA
is the genetic material.
Garrod identified gene product when he noticed a rare disease that turned urine into black or
18.1 Events in Earth's history can be dated
The relative ages of organism cab determined by the dating of fossils and the strata of
sedimentary rocks in which they are found.
Radiometric dating techniques uses a variety of radioisotopes on ma
11.2 Many Prokaryotic Genes are regulated in Operons
Prokaryotes conserve energy and resources by making certain protein only when they are
needed. They have evolved mechanisms to rapidly alter the expression level of certain genes
when conditions warrant
Two key events must take place to ensure that the protein made is the one specified by the
tRNA must chemically read each mRNA codon correctly
tRNA must deliver the amino acid that corresponds to the mRNA codon
Once the tRNA decode the mRNA to th
Translation is in the ribosome. In prokaryotes, transcription/ translation are coupled: there are no
nucleus, and ribosomes bind to the mRNA at all times because it is done in the cytoplasm.
Eukaryotes- the nuclear envelope separates the location of mRNA
15.6 Recombination, Lateral Gene Transfer, and Gene Duplication can result in new
Although they might hypothetically be divided identically as asexual organisms, they are
different because if crossing over, and independent as
16.3 Phylogeny makes Biology compart
Self incompatible species have mechanisms to prevent fertilization of ovule by the individual's
own pollen and so must reproduce by outcrossing with another individual.
Some reproduce using their own pollen by self fer
16.2 Phylogeny can be reconstructed from traits of organisms
For the phylogenetic tree, there are no convergent evolution (they are homologous and they
didnt just pop up), additionally there is no evolutionary reversal (wasnt initially ancestral).\