Page size = 2^12
Offset = 12
2^(32-12) entries in page
Due to normal MMU hardware using some virtual address bits as an indexes, if pages had a
size that was not a power of two, this becomes impossible. Therefore it is theoretically possible,
The 4 main characteristics of a computer family are instruction sets, number of bits used for
representation, I/O mechanisms, and addressing techniques. The most important of these is
sets. This is what allows for the critical function
There are only 5 windows available (one being needed to load the value),
18+8 = 26 registers must be pushed
This pipeline is incapable of seeing a performance boost by using dual RAM and NOOPS
I E D
Driving Force for CISC
- Software cost began to far exceed hardware costs
- Increasing complex (HLL)
- Caused computer language semantic gap
- Lead to
- Larger instruction set
- More addressing modes
- Hardware implementation of HLL statements
A little bit easier method to remember:
Number the bits from left to right ("one", "two", . "seven").
Starting with all zeroes in the parity bits, and working with the data bits, if the data bit in position
"seven" is a 1, you will flip bits 1, 2, and 4 (
Ta = 1 + (1-.95)T2 = 1 + .05T2
Tb = 1.5 + (1-.97)T2 = 1.5 + .03T2
Tb will be better only when T2 is greater that 25ns
4K = 212 Blocks so tag length is 12 bit, 8 of which are the tag itself, 4 bit are needed for the 4 lines.
The network layer is responsible for packet forwarding including routing through intermediate
routers. The network layer implements the host-to-host communication service. There is a
piece of the network layer in each and every host and rou
Source port, Destination port, Length, and Checksum.
All of them are 2 bytes long.
The packet has a length field of 92 bytes, of which 8
are from the header. The remaining 86 bytes belong
to the payload (data) of this UDP segmen
1. What is the IP address of your computer?
3. Within the IP packet header, what is the value in the upper layer protocol field?
Within the header, the value in the upper layer protocol field is ICMP (1)
4. How many bytes are in the IP head
1. What is the IP address of your host? What is the IP address of the destination host?
The IP address of my host is 192.168.0.5. The IP address of the destination host is
2. Why is it that an ICMP packet does not have source and destination
Rey Chen CEC 460 HW #6
1. Source Address: 60:33:4b:25:fa:4d
2. Destination address: 74:56:12:1c:4f:9b
It is not the Ethernet address of the gaia.cs.umass.edu but the address of my router
which is also the link to get off the subnet.
1. 32 bits
2. A routing loop in each packet switch thinks the next packet switch in the set is the
shortest path to a certain destination. The existence of a routing loop means that a
packet can be circulated among packet switches indefinitely. The ICMP e