Structure of DNA and RNA
Nucleic Acids and Nucleotides
Nucleic acids were first discovered in material
extracted from the nuclei of cells
Large molecules that are constructed by linking
together nucleotides to form a polymer
Transcription and Gene Expression
Regulation of gene expression by proteins
Some proteins are unregulated - the ones needed
for the survival of the organism
Others are regulated because they are needed at
certain times and amounts
Gene expression is re
The function of most genes is to specify the sequence of amino acids in a particular
It is the proteins that often directly or indirectly determine the observable characteristics
of an individual
Transcription is the synthesis of
The Role of Mitosis
the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell can divide to form 2
genetically identical nuclei by Mitosis
this allows the cell to divide into 2 daughter cells,
each with 1 of the nuclei and therefore genetically
Involves the use of computers to store and analse the huge amount of data being
generated by the sequencing of genomes and the identification of gene and protein
A scientists studying a particular genetic disorder in humans might
Metric System and Microscopes Notes
-Based on multiples of 10
-Just move the decimal
-If the unit is larger, the number will be smaller and vice versa.
- Fahrenheit- 32x5/9 = Celsius Temperature
-Celsius0 9/5x32= Fahrenheit Tempera
Cell Division Key Terms
Asexual reproduction- mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single
parent, and inherit the genes of that parent only. It is reproduction which does not
involve meiosis, ploidy reduction or fertilization.
Biochemistry Key Terms
Element- chemical substance consisting of one type of atom distinguished by its atomic
number which is the number of protons in its nucleus.
Covalent bond- form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of
Cell membrane Structure and Function Key Terms
Hydrophilic- A molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to and tends to be
dissolves by water.
Hydrophobic- The physical property of a molecule that is repelled from a mass of water.
Protein and Enzymes Key Terms
Prosthetic group- a tightly bound non polypeptide structure required for the activity of an
enzyme or other protein.
Polar amino acids- an alpha-amino acid in which the functional group attached to the
alpha carbon has hydrop
- They are polysaccharides
- They are essential to our bodies
- Found in milk and other various foods and drinks
- There are integral and peripheral proteins
- Active catalysts are called enzymes.
-Also called hydrophilic (w
Biochemistry Review Questions
List the major elements found in living things and state their importance.
Carbon- sugars, DNA, proteins and fats all contain carbon.
Hydrogen- Forms hydrochloric acid, which breaks down fat and protein in the stomach
Element Review Questions
List several examples of functional groups.
Compare condensation and hydrolysis reactions.
Condensation reaction is where enzymes split an -OH group from one molecule and a
Command Key Terms
Define- Give the precise meaning of a word, phrase or physical quantity.
Draw- Represent by means of pencil lines
Label- Add labels to a diagram
List- Give a sequence of names or other brief answers with no explanation.
2.4 & 2.5 Focus Notes Questions
Define the term biome.
A: Collection of ecosystems sharing common climatic conditions.
List examples of the biomes that exist.
A: Tundra, desert, tropical rainforest.
Explain the role of producers in the ecosystem.
Ecological Succession Notes
Examples of wildlife species typically found in areas at different stages of ecological
succession in areas of the U.S with temperate climate.
Example of Succession at Yellowstone National Park
1. Early Successional Species: Ra
Ecological Succession Worksheet
1. Describe the difference between primary and secondary succession.
A: Primary succession occurs in an environment in which new substrate devoid of vegetation
and usually lacking soil, such as a lava flow or area left from
Nitrogen Cycle Class Notes
How the Cycle Works:
Atmospheric nitrogen becomes part of living organisms in two ways. The
first is through bacteria in the soil that form nitrates out of nitrogen in the
air. The second is through lightening. During electri
Carbon and Water Cycle
The Carbon Cycle is influenced by many means of carbon.
Adds to CO2:
Combustion of fossil fuels from vehicles, electricity, heat, industries.
Respiration and decomposition of plants and animals.
Burning of forests
Biome Class Notes
Location and Description- Africa, Australia, etc. Typically located near the equator. Extreme
heat, little plant and animal life.
Temperature and Precipitation- Temp= (68-77F) Precipitation= Less than 1.5 cm of rain
Nutrient Cycle/ Biome Quiz
(a) (i) Compare and give reasons for, the differences in net primary
productivity between any two biomes.
A: Tropical rainforests and deserts are different in NPP due to the differences in
limiting factors and the P to E (pre
Gross Productivity Quiz
1. Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) is
2. Which productivity equation is correct?
A. (net productivity) = (gross productivity) + (respiration loss)
B. (gross secondary productivity) = (food consumed
Vidhay Reddy 1
Daichi Hirakawa 1
Texas Drive Park
Ecosystem Name: Open Grassland
Biotic Factors: Kentucky Bluegrass, Clear-Winged Grasshopper, Fishing Spider, American
Robin, Red-Tailed Hawk, Eastern Black Oak, American Crow, Pea Aphid,ladybug
IB ESS: 2.6 and 2.7 Focus Notes Questions
Explain the concept of limiting factors in the context of population growth.
A: Factors that prevent a community, population or organism from growing larger
are limiting factors. It is difficult for the organisms