o Conclusion-DNA is a helical structure with distinctive regularities, 0.34 nm & 3.4
o The Structure of DNA
DNA is composed of four nucleotides, each containing: adenine, cytosine,
thymine, or guanine.
The amounts of A = T, G = C, and
o Cell Structure and Organelles
o Cell Molecular Components
o Water and Chemical properties
o Cell Membrane
o Osmotic Properties of cells
o Cell molecule transportation
o Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
o Structure of Animal Cells
Structure of Bacteria
Size of Bacteria
Average bacteria 0.5 - 2.0 um in diam.
RBC is 7.5 um in diam.
Surface Area ~12 um^2
Volume is ~4 um
Surface Area to Volume is 3:1
Typical Eukaryote Cell SA/Vol is 0.3:1
Food enters through SA, quickly reache
Introduction to viruses
What is a virus?
Structure and replication
Human virus infections
Immunity to viruses
Role of Complement
Vaccination against viruses
Classification of Microbes
Science of Classification of organisms
Hopes to show relationships among organisms
Is a way to provide universal identification of an organism
Why do we care things are related?
Pneumocystis jirovecii was
Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)
Anthrax was identified by Robert Koch in 1875 in German. In 1500 B.C.E. the Egyptians
got anthrax and called it the plague of boils.
The anthrax vaccine was created in May 1881 by Louis Pasteur. The vaccine fo
Blue Fin Tuna:
Blue fin tuna use counter current flow to absorb the maximum amount of oxygen that
diffuses through their gills. Countercurrent flow occurs when the deoxygenated blood moves
through the gills and the deoxygenated water m
140,000,000 base pairs in a chromosome
2.2 meter long strand of DNA
50 splits per second
The Story of Celltic & Incelder
In a far off land there was a castle. In the castle the royal family wanted more production
in the farms, but there werent enough slaves for the farms to produce the food. The royal family
decided to send dukes outside of t
Evolution on-line Research
1. Mutation changes a bacteriums DNA and because the bacterium does not die it
reproduces making a resistant population to a certain antibiotic.
2. The population after one minute is 313,502,000,000
3. There were 1289 mutations