Surface Water & Ground Water
Hydrology: the study of the water cycle.
Draw the water cycle: Label transpiration,
precipitation, condensation, evaporation, runoff, and
A. Runoff moves water across the surface.
Amount depends on:
1. shape o
Phanerozoic Eon visible life
1. Paleozoic Era (old life)
2. Mesozoic Era (middle life)
3. Cenozoic Era (recent life)
570 mya to 225 mya
(November and part of December on our
Trilobites were common a
Chapter 17 Plate Techtonics
Section 17.1 Drifting Continents
Alfred Wegener (1912) - Theory of Continental Drift
Idea that continents were all joined at one time and then drifted
Pangea (all earth)= giant supercontinent
1. Continents a
Erosion & Deposition
Erosion: process that moves soil and rock &
reshapes the land.
I. Flowing Water (Rivers & Streams)
A. Load amount of material carried by stream.
(Faster rivers carry more load.)
1. Bed load dragged on bottom (larger
Chapter 7 -10 Weathering and Mass Movement
Soil = combination of small rock fragments and organic material.
Weathering = process that breaks rocks into smaller fragments to make soil.
Can be affected by:
1) Composition of the rock (Soft rock weathers
Naturally formed material made of minerals
and other materials.
Building blocks of the earth.
Provide metal & mineral products.
Most are made of the same 20 minerals.
Classified into one of three
I. Soil formation
A. 100-1000 years = 1 cm of soil
B. Factors affecting soil formation
1. Parent material type
2. Climatic factors
a. Temperature changes increase
b. Moisture speeds up soil production
a. Slopes = l
Chapter 29-30 The Universe
Section 1 The Sun
1.) Suns gravity holds planets in orbit.
2.) Planets orbits and make up is related to distance from sun.
3.) Suns energy life
-109 x larger than Earths diameter
-333000 x mass of Earth
Chapter 19 Earthquakes
Section 1 Earthquakes
What causes earthquakes?
Plates slide past each other creating friction.
The friction builds up until the plates slip.
Focus = source of earthquake (inside earth)
Epicenter = point directly above earthquake o
Chapter 29 The Solar System
Overview of Our Solar System
M V E M J S U N P (Mercury, Venus,
Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus,
Neptune, Pluto) (My Very Energetic
Mother Just Sent Us Nine Pizzas.)
All planets and their moo
Chapter 28 Section 1
Optical Telescope- bends and focuses light, like the eyes do.
- enlarges image (doesnt enlarge stars enough)
-Lippershey (1609) eye glass maker
-craters and mountain on moon
-phases of Venus
Chapter 18 Section 3 Notes
Magma ( melted rock inside the earth) bubbles up to the surface.
Lava (magma on the surface) exits through a vent (opening).
Lava cools, solifies, & builds up to form a mountain. (VOLCANO)
Crater- bowl sh