Central Tendency 1
Central Tendency
As discussed previously distributions are described in terms of their shape, central tendency, and
variability. Today we will discuss central tendency.
A measure of central tendency is a single score that represents the
CHAPTER 7 STUDY QUESTIONS
1) Explain the importance of research in relation to dental hygiene practice.
2) Describe evidence-based decision making (EBDM), explain the levels of evidence used for EBDM, and related
EBDM and the levels of evidence to researc
Review (Research
Methods)/Methodology
I. Statistics, Science, & Observations
What is Statistics?
Procedure used to organize, summarize, &
interpret data
Why use statistics?
Summarize information
Answer questions about behavior
II. Populations vs. Sam
Hypothesis Testing 1
Hypothesis Testing & Z-tests
Briefly review sampling distribution
Start with an Example
Pretend that we have developed an SAT course designed to increase SAT
scores. Assume that in the general population the average SAT score is
500 w
Chapter 8
The logic of hypothesis testing
What were going to do today
Understand the logic of hypothesis testing
Why do we do it?
How do we determine a treatment had an effect?
Be able to identify and state H0 and H1 for a research
question.
Be able
Independent Samples t-tests
Review
We use z-test when we have population mean
and standard deviation information
We use one-sample t-test when we have
population mean, but lack population standard
deviation
What if we dont have a known population to
de
The Respiratory System
Anatomy
Physiology
Function of the respiratory mucosa
Role of biofilm
Definition
Characteristics
Classification of Respiratory Diseases
Upper respiratory tract diseases inflammation of the nasal
cavity, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx
One Sample t-test 1
The T-Statistic
The Z-test is used to test hypotheses about an unknown population
when a researcher has (a) sample information (i.e.,
), (b) a
X
hypothesized population mean (i.e., ), and, (c) and the standard
deviation from the popula
Chapter 14
Two-factor ANOVA
(for independent/ between-subjects
measures)
Learning outcomes
Understand the concept of a 2-factor design
Recognize its depiction in matrix format
Be able to identify the number of factors, levels, and
conditions
Be able t
Introduction to t-Tests
Learning outcomes
How is a t-statistics different from a z-statistic?
When is t used for hypothesis testing?
Perform a hypothesis test using t
New standard error calculation!
Take into account df for critical values
Review wh
Z-Scores
Means and SDs
Means and SDs describe the entire distribution of
scores
How can we describe individual scores within the
distribution in a standardized way (i.e. from
different data sets?)
We want to describe the exact location of a
particular
Chapter 12:
One-way
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Learning outcomes
Understand the basic purpose for and logic of
hypothesis testing with ANOVA
How to calculate F ratio (and what is it?)
Understand when post-hoc tests are
necessary, and what purpose the
Compromised Patient
Module 4
GASTROINTESTINAL
AND GENITOURINARY
DISEASE
Chapter 10
LIVER DISEASE
Liver Disease
Little (p. 144)
Liver dysfunction may be attributed to a
number of causes, including acquired
infections and other pathologic conditions, as
wel
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PROBABILITY FORMULAS
Probability of an event A
39(21):;
2:
where f= equency of occurrence of event
11 = sample size
Probability of the complement of event A
Pcfw_notA) = ] -.P(A)
Multiplication rule for Independe
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CONFIDENGE INTERVALS
Condence interval for a mean (large samples
_ cr _ 0'
12, E <11 <1+2,E
Condence interval for a mean cfw_Small samples
5
S
f t < < 3 +1
e I; a c J;
Condence interv
YOUR NAME:_Amanda Oswalt_
PSY 3234, Spring 2017 Homework Assignment #4
Instructions: This assignment contains 25 fill-in-the-blank and multiple choice questions. Use
your textbook, the lecture slides, and any other resource you like to help you answer eac
PSY 3234 (Spring 2016)
Midterm Exam 3 (Practice)
1. Evolutionary theorists were interested in whether people spontaneously follow a 24-hour cycle of
sleeping and waking even if they are not exposed to the usual pattern of sunlight. To test this
notion, ei
Independent and Dependent Samples t-Tests 1
Independent & Dependent Samples t-Tests
Z-test is used when we have a hypothesized population mean and a
known population standard deviation. The general formula for a z-test is:
sample statistic population para
Chapter 2
Frequency Distributions
Agenda
Questions?
Discuss frequency distributions
Purpose and use
Frequency distribution tables
Frequency distribution graphs
Stem & leaf plots
Shapes of distributions
www.socialresearchmethods.net
But first: sampl
Variability 1
Variability
Previously we discussed the shape and central tendency of a distribution. Today, we will discuss a
distributions variability.
Variability is a measure of the extent to which scores are spread-out or clustered-together.
The follow
Frequency Distributions
1
Frequency Distributions
Purpose: To organize the presentation of data.
As an example, have each student indicate the number of siblings. Record haphazardly on the board their
responses. Ask them to summarize the results.
I. Frequ
Z-Scores 1
Z-Scores
As we have discussed during the previous lectures, a distribution is described in terms of its shape, central
tendency, and variability. Often, we are interested in describing not just a single distribution, but
describing and comparin
Introduction to Statistics
I. Statistics, Science, & Observations
what is statistics?
Statistics is a set of mathematical procedures used to organize, summarize, and interpret
information.
Psychologists use statistics for two general reasons:
- organize a
Practice Exam I
Follow the directions below carefully. Show all work! Remember to round to 4-decimal places.
1. Write out the equations for the following statistics.
a) X =
b) S2X =
c) rxy =
d) ZXi =
e) SX|Y =
f) SY|X =
2. Calculate the correlation betwee
Factorial ANOVA 1
Factorial ANOVA
I. Main Effects & Interactions
Go over examples of patterns that reflect main effects and interactions
E.g., We test the effectiveness of a drug for curing AIDs (1-7 scale)
Randomly assign Ps to Placebo or Drug and find t
Repeated Measures ANOVA 1
Repeated Measures ANOVA
I. The Logic
Recall that the F-ratio uses the following logic to detect treatment effects
In a repeated measures design, the same participants are in all levels of
the independent variable. For example, th
Central Tendency 1
Central Tendency
As discussed previously distributions are described in terms of their
shape, central tendency, and variability. Today we will discuss central
tendency.
A measure of central tendency is a single score that represents the
Sampling Distributions 1
Sampling Distributions
When we conduct research, we use samples to draw inferences about
populations. There are two important concepts to remember:
1) Due to sampling error we do not expect the sample information to be
exactly ide
Chapter 13
Repeated-measures ANOVA
Learning outcomes
Understand when we use a repeatedmeasures ANOVA
Understand the logic behind it
-understand the rationale for removing individual
differences
Understand what effect size to use and how to
calculate i