Crystal Growth
GLY 4200
Fall, 2011
1
Mineral Size
Mineral size - nms to
tens of meters
Mineral mass nanograms to
megagrams
Stibnite crystals
2
Methods of Crystal Growth
From solution, usually aqueous
From a melt
By sublimation from a gas phase
3
Nuc
Periodic Table
GLY 4200 Lecture 6 Fall, 2011
1
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev
1834-1907
Russian Chemist
"The properties of the
elements are a periodic
function of their
atomic masses"
2
Henry G.J. Moseley
British chemist 1887-1915
Similar properties recu
Paulings Rules
GLY 4200
Fall, 2011
1
Planar Packing
Hexagonal array of spheres
2
Primitive Hexagonal Array
A type of close packing
3
A-B Layers
Closest-packing
4
Hexagonal Closest Packing
5
A-B-C Layers
Another form of closest-packing
6
Cubic
Closest
Optical Indicatrix
GLY 4200
Fall, 2011
1
Geometrical Representation
The idea of a geometrical representation of
the variance of the index of refraction goes
back to Sir Lazarus Fletcher in The Optical
Indicatrix and the Transmission of Light in
Crystals
Mineralogy Introduction
GLY 4200 - Lecture 1 Fall, 2011
1
Classical Definition of Mineral
From Edward Salisbury Dana:
A body produced by the
processes of inorganic nature,
having usually a definite chemical
composition and, if formed under
favorable con
Mineral Properties
GLY 4200 - Lecture 2 Fall, 2011
1
Hardness
Hardness may be measured in several ways
Mohs scale developed by Austrian
mineralogist Friedrich Mohs in 1824
Absolute scales Brinell, Knoop, Rockwell,
Vickers
2
Mohs Scale
1 Talc
2 Gypsum
3
Magnetism
GLY 4200
Fall, 2011
1
Early Observations of Magnetism
Ancient Greeks, especially those near the
city of Magnesia, and Chinese, observed
natural stones that attracted iron
The naturally magnetic stones are called
lodestone
The Chinese discover
Piezoelectricity
GLY 4200 Lecture 3 Fall, 2011
1
Pierre and Jacques Curie
Pierre and Jacques Curie discovered piezoelectricity
in 1881
2
Piezoelectric Effect Diagram
3
Illustration of
Piezoelectric
Effect
Generation of current
by compression
4
Lighting
Properties of Light
GLY 4200
Fall, 2011
1
Reflection and Refraction
Light may be either
reflected or refracted
upon hitting a surface
For reflection, the
angle of incidence (1)
equals the angle of
reflection (2)
2
Snells Law
3
Willebrord Snellius
Law i
GLY 4200C
Name
14 points
December 1, 2014
10 students took exam
10:30 a.m.
Numbers to the left of the questions (in red) are the points missed.
LAB FINAL EXAMINATION KEY
Closed Notes
True-False - Print the letter T or F in the blank to indicate if each of
GLY 4200
X-Rays and X-ray Mineralogy
X-radiation is a type of electromagnetic radiation, like visible light, UV,
IR, etc. The range in wavelength from approximately 10-6 to 10-1 nm. They were
first discovered by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen in 1895. In 1912, F
X-ray Crystallography
GLY 4200
Fall, 2011
1
Discovery of X-rays
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered xradiation in 1895
In 1912, Friedrich, Knipping, and von Laue
demonstrated diffraction of x-radiation
passing through a crystal
The wavelength of x-radia
Unary and Binary Phase Diagrams
GLY 4200
Fall, 2011
1
Unary Diagrams
Unary diagrams have a single component
We therefore usually choose to plot both P
(pressure) and T (temperature) since
composition is not a variable
Examples
Water
Silica
Carbon
2
Twinning
GLY 4200
Twinning, 2011
1
Twinning Illustration
The twin plane
cannot be a
part of the
normal
symmetry of a
crystal
2
Twinning Operations
Reflection across a mirror plane. The added
mirror plane would then be called a twin
plane
Rotation about
Thermodynamics and the Phase Rule
GLY 4200
Fall, 2011
1
Thermodynamic Background
System: The portion of the universe that is
being studied
Surroundings: The part of the universe not
included in the system
2
Free Energy
Any change in the system involves
Radius Determination
GLY 4200
Fall, 2011
1
X-ray
Diffraction
Image
Images like these can be used to determine
crystal structures
2
Comparison of Radii
3
Squashed versus Unsquashed
Left, metallic or covalent radius
Rght, Van der Waals radius
4
Radii Acr
Pyroelectricity
GLY 4200 Lecture 4 Fall, 2011
1
Pyroelectricity Effect Diagram
2
Polarization
Pi = pi T
where
Pi is the polarization vector,
pi are the pyroelectric coefficients, and
T is the temperature change
3
PVDF
Polymers - such as Polyvinylide
Internal Order and Symmetry
GLY 4200
Fall, 2011
1
Symmetry
The simple symmetry operations not
involving displacement are:
Rotation
Reflection
Inversion
2
Symmetry Elements
Each symmetry operation has an associated
symmetry element
Rotation about an
GLY 4200C
HOMEWORK 3
NAME
KEY
MILLER INDICES AND ZONE AXES
Calculate Miller Indices, given the following intercepts:
1.
a = 2 b = 3 c = 4
Answer
Answer
2.
3.
(643)
(263)
a = 3 b = 1 c = 2
a = 4
b = 0.5
c = - 2
Answer
1
(041)
6
,
4.
a = 0.5
b = 0.33
6
c =
GLY 4200C
HOMEWORK 3
NAME
MILLER INDICES AND ZONE AXES
Calculate Miller Indices, given the following intercepts:
1.
a = 2 b = 3 c = 4
Answer
2.
a = 3 b = 1 c = 2
Answer
3.
a = 4
b = 0.5
c = - 2
Answer
1
4.
a = 0.5
b = 0.33
6
c = 1
Answer
5.
a = 0.25
b = -
GLY 4200C
HOMEWORK 2
NAME
Periodic Table and Quantum Numbers
1.
List the complete electronic configuration of each of the following. You may use [ ] around
an inert gas element symbol to indicate the electrons up to and including that element.
A.
Mn3+
[Ar
GLY 4200C
HOMEWORK 2
NAME
Periodic Table and Quantum Numbers
1.
List the complete electronic configuration of each of the following. You may use [ ] around
an inert gas element symbol to indicate the electrons up to and including that element.
A.
Mn3+
B.
GLY 4200C
Fall 2011
HOMEWORK EXERCISE 1 KEY
Name
SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND DENSITY
Density is the mass per unit volume. In System International units, it is expressed as
kilograms per cubic meter. The older style, and one still used by many mineralogists and
g
GLY 4200C
Fall 2011
HOMEWORK EXERCISE 1
Name
SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND DENSITY
Density is the mass per unit volume. In System International units, it is expressed as
kilograms per cubic meter. The older style, and one still used by many mineralogists and
geolo
Crystallographic Concepts
GLY 4200
Fall, 2011
1
Atomic
Arrangement
Minerals must have
a highly ordered
atomic arrangement
The crystal
structure of quartz
is an example
2
Quartz
Crystals
The external
appearance of
the crystal may
reflect its
internal
sy
Crystal Systems
GLY 4200
Fall, 2011
1
William Hallowes Miller
1801 -1880
British Mineralogist and Crystallographer
Published Crystallography in 1838
In 1839, wrote a paper, treatise on
Crystallography in which he introduced
the concept now known as the Mi
GLY 4200C
HOMEWORK 4
NAME
Ionic Valance in Mineral Formulas
Guidelines:
In mineral formulas, the following guidelines are useful in determining the valance of
an ion.
1. Oxygen ion have a charge of -2
2. Alkali metals ions have a charge of +1
3. Alkaline