Essential elements for plant growth: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Potassium, Potassium,
Calcium, Magnesium, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Iron
Calcium is an important signal that controls stomatal opening and closing by regulating ionic
Prokaryotes lack an organized nucleus bounded by a nuclear envelope. Instead, a single circular,
or continuous, molecule of DNA, associated with non-histone proteins, is localized in a region of
the cell called the nucleoid.
Prokaryotes occasionally conta
The scientific study of biological diversity and its evolutionary history is called systematics
Taxonomy: The identifying, naming, and classifying of species
In 1753, Carl Linnaeus published a two-volume work entitled Species Plantarum (The Kinds of
Charles Lyell postulated that the Earth was much older than previously thought
No mutations: Mutations alter the gene pool by changing one allele into another
Isolation from other populations. The movement of individuals with th
Fig. (9.3) pg. 165
Fig. (9.13) pg. 173
After polypeptide synthesis begins on ribosomes in the cytosol, one of two pathways is followed.
Fig. (9.15) pg. 175 Polypeptide targeting and sorting
Prokaryotes long have been thought to lack specialized membrane-bounded structure
(organelles) that perform specific functions. Recently, organelles called acidocalcisomes have
been found in several bacteria.
Acidocalcisomes are thought to store energy an
The word botany comes from the Greek meaning plant, derived from the verb to feed.
Sidney W. Fox: Proteinoid microspheres
The earliest known fossils are found in rocks of Western Australia about 3.5 billion years old.
Stromatolites: Fossilized microbial m
A. APICAL MERISTEMS Primary Growth
a. Occur near tips of roots and shoots
b. Cells have thin walls, prominent nuclei, and small vacuoles
1) Establish patterns of growth.
A. Support leaves and reproductive structures B. Produce carbohydrates C. Store materials
D.Transport water and solutes between roots and leaves II. STRUCTURE OF PRIMARY STEMS A.Gross anatomy (node, internode, leaf (leaf scar), axillary
3. gymnosperms & dicots B. Fibrous Root System 1. roots arise from stem base 2. shallow root system 3. monocots C. Adventitious Root System II. FUNCTION OF ROOTS A. Anchorage B. Storage C. Absorption D. Conduction
ROOT STRUCTURE - Primary G
I. GENERAL OVERVIEW A. Most physiologically active plant organ B. Photosynthetic organ C. Plants produce a lot of leaves 1. Maple 1 m in diameter - 100,000 covering 2000 m2 2. Oak = 700,000 3. Elm = 5 million per season II. EXTERNAL STRUCTURE A. Si