Chapter 13 Schools, School Crime, and the Rights of Students
The Legal Basis of School Authority
o Justice Abe Fortas noted over 35 years ago in Tinker v. Des Moines
Independent Community School District (1969) that the constitution
does not stop at the s
The idea of the House of Refuge spread across the country, but was derailed in Illinois after
the OConnell case.
People in Illinois still wanted formal mechanisms to control kids, so they created the first
separate court system for kids.
This is big. The
Theory and data:
We are going to pause our historical journey and jump right into modern times to
discuss the theory and data issues. We will get back to historical progressions when
discussing how separate aspects of the juvenile justice system developed
To start examining the evolution of the development of the actual juvenile justice system,
we need to go back to post-colonial times again.
Social organization- Remember, pre-industrial communities were tight knit with strong
social cohesion, small cooper
Before we can examine current juvenile justice research and policies, we need to look
at the path that was taken to get us here. The status quo didnt just pop out of nowhere,
it evolved over time. Some elements of the current state might not make any sens
Description of American Juvenile population
I have presented some of the more relevant data from this site here:
In 2012, 73.9 million Americans - about 1 in 4 - were under age 18.
The juvenile population i
With the historical changes noted in the previous lecture, the ideal of the child changed.
Children were no longer just a small, weak, useless adult, but getting closer to our own
Childhood became seen as a distinct stage in life, different fr
Chapter 9 Disposition and Appeal
o The equivalent of sentencing in adult cases. It is defined as the formal
pronouncement of judgment and punishment on the juvenile
following a finding that the juvenile engaged in the conduct charged.
Chapter 11 Juvenile Correctional Institutions
The Early Seeds of Juvenile Institutions: Almshouses and Orphanages (1600s1820s)
o Prior to the 1800s no separate institutions for juveniles existed.
o Informal community control of wayward youths came in the
Chapter 10 Juvenile Probation and Parole
Probation is defined as a type of sentence where a convicted offender is
allowed to remain free in the community, subject to court-imposed
conditions and under the supervision of a probation officer.
Parole (also k
Chapter 8 Adjudication of Juveniles
Juvenile Adjudication Compared with Adult Criminal Trial
o Similarities to the adult trial
Offender has a constitutional right to due process
Has a right to counsel
Has a right against self-incrimination
Has a right
Chapter 6 Detention and Transfer to Adult Court
Pre-adjudication Detention of Juveniles
o Juvenile detention centers are the equivalent of jails in the adult
o Detention centers function as holding centers and are often called
Bus stops to reflect
Chapter 12 The Death Penalty for Juveniles: Roper v. Simmons (2005)
U.S. Supreme Court Cases
o Furman v. Georgia (1972)
First major case on the death penalty
Held that the death penalty at the time was unconsititutional.
o Gregg v. Georgia (1976)
Chapter 7 The National Court System and the Juvenile Courts
The Court System and its Process
o U.S. has a dual court system
Federal and State
52 separate judicial systems
The Federal Court System
o Supreme Court is the highest
o All justices are nominat
CJJ 6046 3 Credits
JUVENILE JUSTICE RESEARCH POLICY
This is a web-based course. All assignments are to be submitted through Blackboard.
By remaining in this class, you have cheerfully agreed to the
policies and expectatio