Thermodynamics and Equilibrium
Spontaneity, Entropy & Free Energy
Thermodynamics is the study of heat and other
forms of energy involved in chemical or physical
lets us predict whether a process will occur
tells us the direction a
Energy and Energy Changes
Thermodynamics is the science of the
relationships between heat and other forms
Thermochemistry is one area of
thermodynamics. It concerns the study of
the quantity of heat absorbed or evolved
(given off) by chemical r
Chemical reactions often seem to stop before they are
Actually, such reactions are reversible. That is, the
original reactants form products, but then the
products react with themselves to give back the
Redox reactions are those involving the oxidation
and reduction of species.
Oxidation and reduction must occur together. They
cannot exist alone.
Fe0 + Cu2+ Fe2+ + Cu0
Reduced: Copper ga
Chemical kinetics is the study of reaction rates,
including how reaction rates change with varying
conditions and which molecular events occur
during the overall reaction.
We know it is possible to determine whether
The acid dissociation constant (Ka) is the measure of
the strength of an acid in solution.
Liquid water is not included in the equilibrium
What is the pH of a 0.10 M solution?
Chapter 19 Electrochemistry
1. Complete and balance the following redox equation using the smallest whole-number
coefficients. What is the coefficient of Sn in the balanced equation?
Sn + HNO3 SnO2 + NO2 + H2O (acidic solution)
03.02 GROUP NAMES AND PROPERTIES ASSIGNMENT
The name beryllium comes from the mineral beryl.
Discovered in 1798 by Fredrich Wohler
Atomic Number: 4
Atomic Mass: 9.01
Alkaline Earth Metal
Used for spacecraft, missiles,