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Review of Solubility
Suspensions largest sizes of part
Is a technique used to separate and identify common mixtures of ions
Addition of HCl
Addition of H2S
Addition of NaOH
Addition of Na2CO3
Complex Ion Equilibria
Charged species consisting of a metal ion surrounded by ligands.
3 Quantitative descriptors of solubility.
Solubility in moles per liter.
Solubility in grams per liter.
We have already discussed the Ksp model. This is used to find solubility in
moles per liter which is converted into grams per liter using molar mas
Hess Law and Ksp Exemplar
Consider the reaction
Zn(OH)2(s) + 2 CN-1 Zn(CN)2(s) + 2 OH-1
Calculate K for the Reaction
Ksp Zn(CN)2 = 8.0x10-12
Zn(CN)2 Zn+2 + 2 CN-1
Ksp Zn(OH)2 = 4.0x10-17
Zn(OH)2 Zn+2 + 2 OH-1
We will need to reverse reaction (1) a
Gypsum Crystal Cave in Mexico
b What volume of water would be needed to completely dissolve a crystal of
silver phosphate with a mass of 0.750 kg?
b This is best solved by a simple proportion problem from the given data.
We are told that the solubility is
A successful model of solubility will allow us to predict whether a mixture of
two substances will form a precipitate.
Suppose I mix 50.0 ml of 0.020 M Pb(NO3)2 with 100. ml of 0.00250 M NaCl.
Will a precipitate form?
lead II chloride
PbCl2 (s) Pb+2 (aq) + 2 Cl-1 (aq)
Ksp = [Pb+2(aq)] [Cl-1(aq)] 2 = 1.7 x10-5
note the larger Ksp value here
indicates that this substance is relatively more soluble than the carbonate of
Solids are not included in the equil
Solubility Rules Reminders.
All compounds of Group 1 and NH4+ are soluble.
All nitrates are soluble.
All halides, except those of Ag+1 and Pb2+ are soluble.
All sulfates, except those of Group 2, Ag+1, and Pb 2+ are soluble.
All carbonates, phosphates, ox
Complex Ions and Solubility
Two strategies for dissolving a waterinsoluble ionic solid.
If the anion of the solid is a good base, the solubility is greatly increased by
acidifying the solution.
In cases where the anion is not sufficiently basic, the ionic
H 2 + I2
2HI , K = 62.5
CO(g) + 2 H2 (g) CH3OH (g)
Initially a 10.00 L flask contains only CH3OH. After equilibrium the partial pressure
of CH3OH is 0.0300 atm. What are the equilibrium partial pressures of
The rule of Multiple equilibria states
If a reaction can be expressed as the sum of two or more reactions, K for the overall
reaction is the product of the equilibrium constants of the individual reactions
Le Chateliers Principle
Allows us to predict how a system at equilibrium will react when the equilibrium is
A Must Know Quote
Le Chateliers Principle
If a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the equilibrium shifts in a way to
relieve the s
Applications of the Equilibria Constant
A most interesting question is often,
Is A SYSTEM At Equilibrium?
To tell this we use the same expression as the equilibrium expression. When we dont
know if a system is at equilibrium it is labeled as Q the reacti
Changing the temperature will change the K value.
Vant Hoff Equation:
ln ( K2/K1) =
H/R [ 1/T1 1/T2]
Le Chateliers Principle Movie (29 min)
Warmup-Plain ol Keq Problem
For many substances we use [ ] in Molarity, moles/literin some cases when gases
and liquids are involved both partial pressures and Molarities are involved. It is
critical that a K is associated with a chemica
13.2 The Equilibrium Constant Expression
For the Generic Reaction:
jA + kB mC + nD
K = kf/kr=[products] / [reactants]
K is sometimes denoted Keq, Kc or simply K.
Kp is used for equilibria with pressure information
For the general reaction :
K = _
Jose Ortega y Gasset
Chemical Equilibrium Chapter 13
Examples-Chemistry and elsewhere
An Equilibrium occurs whenever two opposite processes occur at the same rate.
Simply Science Intro Equilibrium (29 min)
Chapter 12-A Brief Review
Quantitative Measures and Basic Principles
Reaction rates are measured in terms of the molarity change per unit of time. Ex
Reactions occur as a result of molecular collisions.
Summary Problems A,B
Carbon monoxide and hydrogen can react under different conditions to give different
products. One system produces methanol, CH3OH when CO and H2 react in the
presence of a suitable catalyst.
(A) Write the equilibrium expression for th
A Catalysts lowers Activation Energy
In the drawing below, the reactants have a "difficult" process getting together to form
a product. The catalyst organizes the reactants so that fewer "high-energy" collisions
may have to occur to happen with the cataly
The Chamber of Living Things
For each translation below, determine which of the 6 modern kingdoms of life is
described and write at least three reasons why it belongs in that kingdom. Use
the table in your notes to complete the worksheet.
1. This type of
I. WHY ARE THINGS GROUPED?