Catalyst: substance that changes the rate of reaction without undergoing
permanent change during the process.
Homogenous catalyst: catalyst that is present in the same phase as the reactant
As a general rule catalysts change the rate of reactio
Enter answer no exponents
The process by which a reaction occurs.
Chemical equations only show beginning and ending substances
Can show in detail bond breaking and forming and structural changes that occu
20) The proposed mechanism for the above reaction is:
21) Consider the reaction above.
If this was a single step mechanism, what would the rate law be?
Increasing concentration of reactants gives increasing rate (usually).
Decreasing rates of reactions over time is typical.
Due to decreasing concentration of reactants.
Overall concentration dependence is expressed as:
General form for rate laws:
Movement of solvent molecules from a less concentrated solution to a more
Across a semipermeable membrane.
Solvent moves toward higher solute concentration.
Pressure required to prevent osmosis.
Osmotic pressure obeys a law similar
What is the molarity of a solution that contains 35.0g of NaCl in 3.00 L of solution?
Molarity (M) is moles per volume of solution.
Molality (m) is moles per kilograms of solvent.
Assume you add 1.2kg of et
DAY 3 Chapter 13.5
Physical properties of solutions that depend on the quantity of solute particles.
Decreasing freezing-point, increasing boiling-point, vapor pressure reduction, &
Vapor pressure is
The osmotic pressure of 0.010M potassium iodide solution at 25C is 0.465 atm.
Calculate the Vant Hoff factor for KI at this concentration.
AP review Gases
Important Equations related to gases:
Remember STP: 0C and 1atm
P 2 V nb nRT
Pa Ptotal X a where X a =
moles of A
Ptotal Pa Pb Pc.
K C 273
KE mv 2
Kb is the molal boiling point elevation constant.
(depends only on the
This effect is known as the Vant Hoff Factor (i).
This effect is true of all colligative properties.
1m Sucrose and 1m NaCl would be expected to have the same impact o
Attractions between solute and solvent.
Among gases increasing molecular mass or polarity increase solubility.
Due to London dispersion forces.
Polar liquids tend to dissolve in polar solvents.
Due to dipole-dipole attractions
Energy and Solution Formation
The enthalpy of change in forming a solution (Hsoln)
Hsoln=1 + 2 + 3
1: separation of solute
(endothermic 1 > 0)
2: Separation of solvent molecules. (requires energy 2 >0)
Exothermic processes tend to occur spontaneously.
Day 1: Pop & hot bolt (Day 1)
Day 1: Nonadditivity of Volumes (Demo a Day Vol. 1 pp 120)
Day 1: Supersaturated Solution (Demo Day Vol. 1 pp 143)
Acid-Water Puzzle (Demo a Day Vol. 1 pp 141)
Solubility Exception (Demo a Day Vol. 2 p
DAY 2 Chapter 13.4
Mass percentage, ppm, ppb
Mole fractions, molarity, molality
Mass percent #1
A solution is made by dissolving 13.5 g of glucose