When two opposing processes occur at equal rates.
When evaporation and condensation occur at the same rate.
Vapor pressure is the pressure at which dynamic equilibrium exists between
liquid and gas.
When evaporation occurs in an open s
DAY 3 Chapter 11.4- 11.6
Changes in the state of matter
In general each state of matter can change into either of the other two states.
Phase changes require energy.
Changes to a more disordered state require energy to overcome the i
Graph of temperature of the system versus heat added to the system.
Some segments of the graph are heating as single phase.
Others are converting one phase to another.
The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a substance is given by the
Cubic unit cell
Atoms on the corners and faces of the unit are shared between unit cells.
Structure known as a face-centered cube.
Close Packing Spheres
Crystalline structures attempt to maximize the attractive forces between atoms,
molecules, or ions.
Ions held together with ionic bonds.
Strength of bonds depends greatly on the charges of the ions.
4 common types of crystal sturctures.
NaCl/ coordinate #6/ simple cubic structure/ each Na is surrounded by 6 Cl.
CsCl/ coordinate #8/simple cu
HCl or (b) C8H18
15.) Br2 has:
16.) Ne has:
17.) HF has:
Comparing Intermolecular Forces
Composition and structure of a molecule determine which intermolecular forces are
All substances have dispersion forces.
-Strength increases with molecular weight.
Dipole-dipole forces add to dispersion forces and
DAY 2 Chapter 11.1-11.3
The ease with which the charge distribution in a molecule can be distorted by an
external electric field.
The more polarizable a molecule is, the easier it is to create a momentary dipole.
DAY 1 Chapter 11.1-11.2
are state functions.
Liquid, solid, & vapor
have the same
Differ in physical properties
Substances that are liquid at room temperature tend to be molecular subst
In general intermolecular forces tend to be much weaker than ionic or covalent bonds.
Boiling points and melting points are an indication of the strength of intermolecular
Interaction between an ion and a partial charge in a pola
stronger london dispersion forces
stronger dipole dipole forces
water exhibits hydrogen bonding
Boiling points and intermolecular forces
Water has a low molecular weight and a high boiling point.
Dispersion forces do not account for this.
Hydrogen bonds c