1. The Newtonian Synthesis
1. Illustrates Isaac Newtons major contributions
2. Most important because took variety of theories, concepts, scientific ideas and put it togetherthe
synthesis to produce a cohesive system that remains in place for several hund
1. Developing new movements and parties and make a comprehensive agenda designed to challenge
2. Most dramatic! Machine breakersworkers that recognizes the dangers that came from automation.
Uneducated but not stupidunders
1. Interpreting the French Revolution *YOU MISSED CLASS ON 4/25GET NOTES
1. Becoming Modern
1. Commenced in 1789
2. Aspects of French Revolution
1. Logo-Government of the Fifth Republic1789 there was revolution overthrew monarchy, and
established 1st repu
1. The Failure of Appeasement
1. Able to pin war on Nazi Germany, but there are other reasonsactions of Nazi Germany, as well as the
actions and policies of Western European powers.
1. Came into effect because the political leaders of Britain and France w
1. Networking in the Cold War
1. Information is the basis for our social and cultural structure
2. Paul Baron-major computer researcher that worked for the RAND corporation in the 1950-60s. Came up
with the earliest and ost influential ideas of how comput
1. What Caused the Great War?
1. Freud: Western Civilization Goes Crazyhis explanation
1. Believed that the Great War provided firm evidence that west civilization had lost its mind. He tried to
take the theory of individual psychology which he developed
1. Origins of the Cold war
1. George Orwell titled it the Cold War. Illustrates the conflict is different from previous onesthe idea that
this war was not fought openly, directly between the two opposing parties. Fought indirectly using third
1. Mikhail Gorbachevs Reforms
1. No economic growth, and even shrinking in some cases. Similar problems erupted in all of communist
societies (Poland, Czechoslovakia) Communist economic planning stalled out in mid 20th century. Cant
expand if they stuck t
1. Scientific field by Franz Gallstudy and measurement of human skull types. If you measure the
various skull types, you can figure out something about the intellectual powers of the human
being. This is regarded as a pseudoscience, but in t
Dr. Lewis Call
Western Civilization: Reformation to the Present
19 April 2011
The Protestant Reformation: An Eternal Change for the Better
Major French philosopher Henri Bergson once stated that, To exist is to change, to
change is to ma
1. Friedrich Nietzsche
1. The optimism during Enlightenment did not last and was replaced by a more critical philosophical
attitude in the late 19th century continuing into early 20th centuryrepresents a tremendous change in
values. Calling the entire pro
1. Interpreting Industrialization
1. Revolution or Evolution?
1. Major economic transformationindustrialized
2. Revolution-18th and 19th had changed
1. New technologies, inventing the process of inventing things (period features the invention of
1. Der Judenfrage (The Jewish Question)
1. Attempt on German Nazi party to exterminate all Jewsgenocide, killed 6 million people
1. Didnt immediately embark on this, came later and gradually emerged from anti-Semitic discoursge
throughout the 1920-30s. ob
1. A German Sonderweg (special path/way)?
1. Germany is weird, not like other countries, they followed unique and odd path to Unification. They also
modernized itself strange/unusual/different
1. Occurred when the tradition aristocracy gradually fell from
1. What is Fascism-specific and precise historical phenomenon.
1. Originated in Italy 1920s under Mussolini (first major fascist to gain power)
2. Hitler rises to power in Germany, good example of Fascist political movement.
3. General Franco in Spain lat
1. Evolution before Darwin
1. Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
1. Famous French biologist published beginning of 19th century. 1800-argued in favor of evolution; argued
it was possible to classify organisms in degree of complexityhierarchy of natural world.
1. Interpreting the Enlightenment
1. How Much Enlightenment?
1. Single, unified movementThe Enlightenment, propagated not only through western societies in
Europe, but throughout the North American society as well.
2. Best understood as a variety of diffe
1. Adam Smiths Wealth of Nations 1776
1. Most influential book of modern economic history
2. Not an American, from Scotland, but came from the same cultural environment as Americans. Reading
same books, same hairsame cultural world
3. 1776-right when the
1. The Russian Empire: Casualty of the Great War
1. Very unprepared, inexperienced. They were losing, under the brink of collapse. 1917, the population had
determined had placed the blame on their monarch Tsar Nicholas II. The top generals got together an