Uses of Content Analysis by Purpose, Communication Element, and Question
Purpose
Question
Source
Make inferences
about the antecedents
of communications
Element
Who?
Use
Answer
questions of disputed authorship
Secure political & military intelligence
Anal
Using a Full Outline Format Helps . . .
to make a selective bibliography
to read selectively
to provide vehicle for flow of
thought
to observe important phenomena
Slide G.1
Citation Format
Reinard, J. C. (1991). Foundations
of argument: Effective
communic
Comparing More Than
Two Means
Mean A
Mean B
Mean C
Slide 14.1
Analysis of Variance Null
Hypothesis
H0: A = B = C
Slide 14.2
Analysis of Variance
Slide 14.3A
Analysis of Variance
between groups variance
F
within groups variance
F
n*s
s
2
x
2
p
Slide 14.3
A
Population and Sample Means
Slide 12.1A
Population and Sample Means
X
X
i
n
Slide 12.1
Mean Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages
commonlyunderstood
alldatahaveonedescriptivemean
Disadvantages
extremescoresdistortmean
tediousifcomputedbyhand
Slide 12.2
One Sample t Test
X
t
s n
Slide 13.1
Null Hypothesis for
Two Sample t Test
H 0 : new current
Slide 13.2
t Test for Independent Samples
X1
X2
t
1 1
s
p n1 n2
Slide 13.3
Finding the Critical Region of t
-2.228
2.228
Slide 13.4
t Test Exercise for
Independ
Foundation of Empirical Inquiry,
Part 1: The Attitude
A Willingness to Be Guided
by Data, Not Prejudice
Slide 9.1
Foundation of Empirical Inquiry,
Part 2: Purposes
Knowledge Based on
Empirical Facts
Empirical Research
Describes Reality
to Help Form
Accura
Nominal Level Measurement
numbers used as ways to identify
or name categories
numbers do not indicate degrees
of a variable but simple groupings
of variables
equivalent to qualitative data
Slide 4.1
Ordinal Level Measurement
uses rank order to determine
d
Major Meta Theory Schools:
The Objectivist View
The Positivist Perspective: generalizations apart
from observable reality considered unacceptable
Logical Positivism: statements not describing facts
are metaphysical and meaningless
Logical Atomism: statem
Why Meta-Analysis?
Mata Hari,
not
Meta-Analysis
1. When Narrative Literature Reviewers Have
Drawn Conflicting Conclusions
2. When There are Many Studies
3. When It Is Desired to Synthesize Study
Results Across Different Samples and
Materials.
Slide 15.1
M