In the second unit on waves and optics we finally turn our full attention to light. In this
particular unit we will tend to avoid the wave nature of light while emphasizing the
ability of light to tra
Since there are now atoms in the way the light must change speed. What will this do to
frequency and wavelength? How do you compare the speed of light through one medium
as compared to another? Consid
value of n=1.51 at the red end of the spectrum up to a value of 1.53 at the violet end of
the spectrum. As a result of variation on indexes of refraction when white light strikes a
transparent materia
before getting to the mirror, in other cases the ray only encounters C after reflection.
In fig23.13c the ray never gets to C because that point is located behind the mirror.
Again the phrase through
Magnification = f(object distance)
You can see that the magnification is positive for
values of x less than the focal length. So the image is upright if you are inside of the
focal length and inverted
Harmonic Oscillators
In the last unit on Classical Mechanics we consider a special type of motion known as
harmonic motion. This type of motion is distinct because of the repetitive nature.
Consider a
clock not started so that t = 0 seconds when M is in the center moving to the right. How
would starting the clock at different times change the equations?
Starting t = 0 seconds when M is at the far r
Notice how when x = 0 then a =0 also. Maximum values for acceleration and position
take place at the same time.
Shown below are the overlapped graphs of v and x (upper) and a and x (lower).
Be sure th
Now you can determine the speed of the object directly when a specific position is
known. We say speed rather than velocity because the direction of the object is lost in the
above proof. How fast is
We can once again rewrite the equation in terms of period.
Portfolio Assignment #12
Construct a pendulum of known length. Measure the time for 20 swings and calculate
g. Then using the books value of
KE = k(A2 x2)
The kinetic energy is merely total energy minus potential energy or the difference in the
graphs.
Although potential energy and kinetic energy vary, they do so in such a way to keep the
Note there are no negative energies.
Kinetic Energy vs. time
KE = m v2
= (0.5)cfw_-1m (4.47/sec)sin(4.47t)2
Y4 = Y22 for TI-83
Again there are no negative energies.
By combining the equations for PE a
weight of the water in between top and bottom.
It happens that a point lower in a static fluid will
be at a higher pressure according to the formula
in the box to the right as well as equation 9.10. T