PCB 3043 Exam 4 Study Guide
Chapter 18 Community Structure
Communities and boundaries
A community is an assemblage of species living together in an area.
Community zonation also occurs in aquatic communities.
Species composition changes across a landscape
Chapter 12 Population Growth Regulation
Demography: The study of population.
o Involves the use of mathematical techniques to predict growth of populations.
o Involves intensive study of both laboratory and natural populations with e
1. Speciation Is a gradual process
2. Fossils constitute evidence of Macroevolution
3. Vestigial traits like the coccyx or the hair follicle muscles from humans are Evidence
supporting species change through time or microevolution
4. According to
1. In evolutionary trees, evolutionary relationships are defined from _.-
2. According to The Fundamental Principle of Phylogenetic Inference:-Synapomorphies identify monophyletic groups.
3. In phylogenetic inference, an evolutio
1. New genes can be created through _ following two major mechanisms:
_ and _.-gene duplication/unequal crossing-over/retroposition.
2. Mutations are difficult to study because _.-They are often rare and
have subtle effects.
3. While skin color di
1. Why does the US Supreme Court strikes down the teaching of creation science and intelligent
design in schools?- because they are against the first amendment of US Constitution
2. Evolution by natural selection _ build molecular machines from _.
The genetic variation for _ is called _.
a. Phenotypic plasticity/genotype-by-environment interaction
The _ powerful method for testing hypothesis are _ because they allow
to _ the effect of
a. Most/experiments/isolate/specific factors
Which of the following assessments is false?
In his book Philosophie Zoologique, Lamarck was extraordinarily critic with the idea of
Natural Selection previously proposed by Charles Darwin
2. Ontogeny is not evolution because
Ontogeny is th
1.HIV leaves an infected cell by
Budding from the cell membrane
2. The HIV protein that is involved in attachment of the virus to host cells is.
3. What is the major reason preventing the development of an efficient AIDS vaccine?
The high mu
1. The major reason behind random genetic drift is _.-the finite size of the
2. The main idea proposed by the Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution is _.-During evolution, the number of neutral mutations fixed by drift in the populatio
1. Natural selection in which events that befall_after the collective properties of_.
2. one of the most important features of darwins theory of natural selection is.that the
theory is testable.
3. which traits are adaptive?
Heights of Pine trees from three sites in Everglades National Park
Plant heights (m)
Plant heights (m)
Random Segregation different alleles segregate
Homologous Chromosomes align randomly in Metaphase I
Independent Assortment different genes are separate independently of each other
Homologous recombination mix genes on the same chromosome.
PCB 3063 Genetics
Difference between Genetics and Biochemistry
The use of model organisms in genetics
Germ plasm theory
The gene is the fundamental unit of heredity
Genes come in multiple
Notes on Enzyme Kinetics:
The rate of an enzymatic reaction increases with increasing substrate concentration until
the enzyme is saturated.
At high substrate concentration (saturation) every enzyme is working at maximum
The initial velocity at
Exam #1 Chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, & 6
1) What important role do fungi play?
a) They function as nutrient recyclers.
b) They accomplish many unique biochemical transformations.
c) They produce most of the food that other organisms need.
d) They assimilate N2 in
Chapter 16 concepts
Competition occurs when individuals experience limited
The theory of competition is an extension of logistic
Outcome of competition can be altered by abiotic conditions,
disturbances, and interactions with
Lecture 1: CH1 and CH18
Cell Culture is one of the most important tools in cell biology
Cells can be obtained in large quantities
Many types of cells can be grown in culture
Most cultures contain a single cell type
Different cellular activ
Distome- fluke with two suckers oral and ventral
Monostome- fluke that lacks a ventral sucker
Amphistome-fluke with ventral sucker at posterior end
Distal cytoplasm anucleate layer of cytoplasm above an epidermis
Internuncial processes- channels that corr
Extra Credit Assignment
-Protein-tyrosine kinase is a type of substrate protein that formulate dimers to definite
cytoplasmic phosphorylate residues.
-cAMP or Cyclic AMP its function is to act as a second messenger that releases
Lecture/Discussion 5 9/6/16
Topics of todays class:
Exam 1 will be held
a week from Today,
Sept 13, 2016
How a cell endocytoses small-ish substrates:
Necrosis and Apoptosis
Different types of cell death can be
distinguished by high-resolution microscopy
Image adapted from Alberts
Necrotic cell death, as visible by microscopy:
Apply a membrane
Lecture/Discussion 10 9/27/16
Protein inser1on into ER
Review: Amino acids,
Of these, Alberts says
the non-polar ones
We use that guideline
Lecture/Discussion 6 9/8/16
Outline of Today's class
Re: studying for exam 1 next Tuesday
Practice explaining material to each other, and try out some practice questions.
Sept 1, 2016
Current oce hours are basically right a?er class.
Would you like to keep these Fmes or change?
A) Leave the oce hour Fmes as they are.
B) Please show us
Lecture/Discussion 11 9/29/16
Transit through (and exit from) the Golgi
Warm-up1: Cop2 coat assembly drives ER exit
Sar1 interacts with Sec23/24 recruit other proteins to the ER to coat/form a vesic
Lecture/Discussion 8 9/20/16
Chromatin interaction with nuclear
Warm-up: DNA is packaged into nucleosomes to:
Keep it organized, fit it into nucleus, regulate gene expression
Adapted from: http:/www.liquidarea.
(Online) Lecture 7 9/15/16
Nucleus structure and function
The basic organization of the nucleus
The basic functions of the nucleus
Translation by ribosome
Image adapted from: htt
Value of my education
Without any doubts, education is the most powerful tool in the human progress. It helps
people to become the integrated individuals and find their places in the world. Moreover,
education ensures the high quality of life as well as r