and Free Energy
A process is said to be spontaneous if it
occurs without outside intervention.
The process can be fast or slow.
Thermodynamics can predict the direction
in which a reaction will occur but not th
Where Psoln is the observed vapor
pressure of the solution, xsolvent is the mole
fraction of solvent, and P0solvent is the
vapor pressure of the pure solvent.
Calculating Vapor Pressure of
a Solution containing Ionic
The Nature of Matter
At the end of the 19th century, the idea
prevailed that matter and energy were
Matter was thought to consist of particles,
wheras energy in the form of light was
described as a wave.
It is possible for a solution to form even
when Hsoln is a small positive number,
as it is for a sodium chloride solution.
One factor that favors a process is an
increase in probability.
Energy considerations are also important.
Processes that require la
Types of Solutions
Since a mixture has a variable
composition, the relative amounts of each
substance in the solution must be
Qualitative terms like dilute (little solute)
Concentrated nitric acid is
added to solid iron(II) sulfide.
H+ + FeS
Solid lead(II) carbonate is added
to 0.5M sulfuric acid solution
PbCO3 + H+ + HSO4H2O + PbSO4
Ammonium chloride crystals
are added to a solution of
A metal combines with a nonmetal to form
a binary salt.
Metallic oxides and water form bases
Nonmetallic oxides and water form acids.
The nonmetal retains its oxidation number.
Metallic oxides and nonme
Reactions in which one or more
electrons are transferred are
Many important chemical
reactions are redox.
Photosynthesis & Combustion
The oxidation states of the ato
Liquids and Solids
It is important to recognize that when
substances like water change state, the
molecules remain intact.
The changes in state are due to changes
in the forces between the molecules rather
than those withi
Gas pressure is the pressure exerted by
gas particles on the walls of their container
or their surroundings.
A barometer is used to measure
A manometer is used to measure the
pressure of an enclosed gas.
Freezing Point Depression
What mass of ethylene glycol
(C2H6O2)must be added to 10.0 L of water
to produce a solution that freezes at -23.3
C? Assume the density of water to be 1.00
Kf for H2O = 1.86 C kg/mol
Colligative Properties of
Keq and Multistep Processes
If two reactions can be added together to
create a third reaction, then the Keq for
the two reactions can be multiplied to get
the Keq for the third reaction.
Keq = K2
Keq = K1K2