France - Falloux Law, priests provided religious education within the public
- Ferry Laws - replaced religious training with instructions on citizenship.
- (1905) Napoleonic Concordat terminated = Church and State schools
The Hapsburg Empire
1848: Francis Joseph become Emperor of Austria
1859: Austria defeated by France and Piedmont and gives territory to
1860: Francis Joseph issues the October Diploma which created a
federation among the states and provinces of the
Realism portrayal of all of societys faults to change public opinion and
- Charles Dickens - the poor in industrialized England.
- Gustave Flauberts Madame Bovary is often considered the first
- Emile Zolas Nana - life of a pros
1853: Crimean War; due to 1) Ottoman Empire giving France rather than
Russia control over Christian sites in Holy land and 2) Russia occupying
Moldavia and Walachia.
1854: France and Britain enter Crimean War by declaring war on Russia
Overview: (1830-1850) Europe was heading toward an industrial society.
Great Britain had already achieved this.
There was a formation of creeds that both opposed and supported
the new society.
The time period was uncertain, entrepreneurs knew that the tra
-Assuming the child survived childbirth, it would usually be the responsibility of a wet nurse
as women didnt have time to child rear
-The number of illegitimate births and infanticide deaths increased in the 18 th century
-Foundling hospitals we
New Literate Public
Governments started funding education in the late 1860s (by 1900 85% of
W. Europe could read)
1. democracy informed voters
2. economy more educated workers
Positivism - Auguste Comte Father of Sociology, wrote The Positive
The Invasion of Russia
Napoleon annexed Holland in violation of the Treaty of
Tilsit, recognized Marshal Bernadotte as future King
Charles XIV of Sweden and married an Austrian princess.
Tsar Alexander withdrew from the Continental System
and began prepa
France: Liberal Empire to Third Republic
1851: beginning of Napoleon IIIs reign which began with
authoritarian rule, in which he controlled the legislature, censored the
press and harassed political dissidents.
1860: Turning point in Napoleons reign. He c
European Response to the Empire
Napoleons conquests stimulated liberalism and
Church monopoly of religion was replaced by general
German Nationalism and Prussian Reform
The romantic movement began to take hold in Germany.