Number of Bubbles in 10 minutes
The Effect of Salinity on the Respiration of Yeast
Numbe r of Bubble s in 1 0 minut e s
Salinit y (Monles per Lit er)
Plants harness light energy
Combine CO2 + H2O to make organic molecules (carbohydrates)
Material for plant growth
Self sustaining machines solar + mechanical energy
Prieslys experiments show that plants produce oxygen (realized without light cnt rep
b) The control of the experiment is the light, unboiled chloroplast suspension. This is
because, in nature, that is what naturally occurs. In the other experiments, you are
changing one variable from the control to test the different effects.
c) How ph
What on Earth is Going On Here, Anyway?
NetReaction:Energy (light) + 6CO2 + 12H2O - Glucose (C6H12O6) + 6H2O + 6O2
The pH graph is expected to reach its maximum reaction rate at a pH of about
7. This is because the optimal pH for most enzymes to function in is within the range of
6-8 (mostly neutral). The pH of a substance reflects its acidity, or concentration of H i
Diameter: .25 um
Length: 2-20 um
- Number per cell: many
- Beating pattern: like oars, alternating recovery + power
strokes in a direction perpendicular to ciliums axis
Function: Primary Cilium
- Signal receiving antenna
- Nonmotile (1 per cell)
October 4th, 2012
b. I predict that the 0% NaCl solution will not produce any concentration of NaCl outside
of the bag because there is no solute. Additionally, because the they have equal
concentrations, water can go back an
alThe oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide releases approximately 277.4kcal of
energy. If all of this energy is released at one time, then most of it would be lost as heat.
Burning the energy all at once would be akin to igniting your gas tank in order
Memory brains storage bin for info
Short term/waking memory
Long term memory
Herman Ebbinghaus First psychologist to study forgetting
Retension: proportion of learned info that is remembered
Measures of forgett
List of questions for Mr. B:
read our intro? and do we need to define ALL the terms in the background info?
can our methods be numbered, corresponding to tests?
can our results be numbered, corresponding to tests? (same as methods)
Is our lab formatted co
How is are the rough and smooth ER similar?
Both attached to nuclear envelope, and are like a system of membrane bound vesicles.
How are they different?
Be electron microscopy no ribosomes attached
o Lipid + steroid hormone sy
THE AQUATIC BIOME:
The aquatic biome is broken down into two basic regions: freshwater and saltwater. The
temperature of the aquatic biome varies for season to season. Freshwater regions include
wetlands, rivers, lakes, ponds, streams, etc. Saltwater regi
4-10 inces High
4. Cells and Energy
CHEMICAL ENERGYChemical energy is cellular ATP in organisms.
Chemical energy releases energy used for cell processes.
PHOTOSYNTHESISPhotosynthesis has light independent reaction which uses CO2.
Photosynthesis has light dependent reacti
5. Cell growth and division
THE CELL CYCLEThe cell cycle is a regular pattern in eukaryotes.
The cell cycle consists of mitosis, which is a division of cell nuclear contents.
MITOSISMitosis starts with condensing of chromosomes, which are DNA strands that
3. Cell Structure and function:
CELL THEORYThe cell theory says all existing cells are produced by other living cells.
The cell theory says all organisms are made of cells that contain organelles, which
perform special jobs.
CELL ORGANELLESCell organelles
VHS Summer Biology
2-4 Osmosis in Animal & Plant Cells
1. Draw a round circle (below) to represent an animal cell and label the inside of the
cell hypertonic and the outside of the cell hypotonic.
2. Draw the dire
Organic Molecule Essay Questions
a. Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material:
A carbohydrate is a sugar (monosacharide), or one if its dimmers (disaccharide)
or polymers (polysaccharides, bonded sugar molecules) storage+structure
Organisms from kingdom plantae and kindom animalia have respective traits that
define the taxonomical distinction between them. The two kingdoms can be distinguished
through their forms of nutrition, cellular structure, and way of
Nucleus - largest organelle in a eukaryote
1st descried by Robert Brown in 1831
surrounded by cytoplasmic filaments in some cells
some cells have multiple nuclei
erythrocytes - mammalian red blood cells; lose nuclei as they mature
Section 1: Manipulating DNA
Manipulating DNA can be done by several techniques, such as Restriction enzymes by
cutting DNA into fragments separated by gel electropherosis.
Manipulating DNA is done by several techniques such as restriction enzyme
DNA is identified as the genetic material.
DNA was confirmed by Hershey and Chase, who studied a bacteriophage.
Section 2: Structure of DNA
The structure of DNA is composed of 4 nucleotide types that are either purines or
Mendel laid the groundwork that revealed biological inheritance patterns.
Mendel explained purebred as a genetically uniform line.
Genes have a phenotype, which is expressed physical traits.
Genes produce a diversity of traits.
cells - found in all organisms
genetic material - found in central nucleoid area of prokaryotes or nucleus
(surrounded by nuclear envelope) of eukaryotes
DNA has the genes that code for the proteins made by the cell
cytoplasm - semifluid substance w
a) , From the information given about the size of the specific objects, it is very
unlikely that anything smaller than .1 m would be considered living because the
smallest structural/functional unit of any organism will contain organ
Cell Diversity and Cell Movement
vacuoles - central storage compartment
plants contain central vacuole to store water, sugars, ions, pigments
applies pressure to the plasma membrane, increasing surface area-to-volume ratio
also found in some types of fung
Biology, 8e (Campbell)
A Tour of the Cell
1) When biologists wish to study the internal ultrastructure of cells, they most likely would use
A) a light microscope.
B) a scanning electron microscope.
C) a transmission ele