Happiness
A random sample of 40 countries was selected. For each of the countries, the variables described below was collected.
Variable
Happy
EcoFee
GDPpc
Unemp
Life
Risk
Description
An index (0 to 10) of sbujective wellbeing
An index (0 to 100) of econo
P1: OSO
FREE013-TABLE
FREE013-Moore
September 4, 2008
Table entry for C is the critical
value t required for confidence
level C. To approximate one- and
two-sided P -values, compare the
value of the t statistic with the
critical values of t that match
the
Descriptive Statistics: Graphs 1
Area Principle for graphs the area occupied by a section of a graph is proportional to the percentage
of data represented by that section (except in the timeplot and boxplot which are constructed on
different principles).
Measure of Center
the value at the center or middle of a data set
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Arithmetic Mean (Mean or average)
the measure of center obtained by adding the values and dividing the total by the
number of values
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Mean Advantages
Is relatively reliable, means of
p hat=
the success/n
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If p-value his < or equal to alpha then.
we reject Ho
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if p-value is > alpha then.
we fail to reject Ho
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For 2 samples, what does the Ho always look like?
M1-M2
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What is the degrees of freedom rule for dependent samples?
n-1
Statistics
The art and science of collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting data.
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Data
The facts and figures collected, analyzed, and summarized for presentation and
interpretation.
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Data Set
All the data collected in a particular study.
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Causal Comparative design
describes a true experiment except for the fact that the groups were not randomly
assigned but can be analyzed with a test of significance just like a true experiment.
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Ex post facto or after the fact design
can be analyzed wi
Least Squares Sense
Mean is the closets value to all the numbers in the data set
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Median
the middle number in the data set
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Mode
the most frequently occurring number
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Variability
Describes how consistent scores are with each other
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Range
Xmax - Xmin
sample
subset of a population
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population
every individual
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random
each individual has equal probability of being selected
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stratified
proportional to the size of a demographic in a population
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voluntary
contains only those individuals that ch
Math Homework (3.2)
I. Measures Of Dispersion
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a. Dispersion is the degree to which the data are spread out.
b. The purpose of these measures is to describe the typical value of a
variable.
A. Compute the Range of a Variable from Raw Data
a. Range is t
Math Homework
I. The Measures of Central Tendency
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a. A measure of central tendency numerically describes the average or
typical data value.
b. Three measures of central tendency are most widely used: mean, median,
and mode.
A. Determine the Arit
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Math Homework (3.3)
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I. Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion from Grouped Data
a. Discussing how to compute descriptive statistics from raw data.
b. While we cannot obtain exact values of the mean or standard
deviation without raw data, these me
Analyzing the Association
Between Categorical
Variables
What is Independence and What is Association?
1
Learning Objectives
1. Comparing Percentages
2. Independence vs. Dependence
2
Learning Objective 1:
Example: Is There an Association Between
Happiness
Statistical Inference:
Significance Tests About
Hypotheses
What Are the Steps for Performing a
Significance Test?
1
Learning Objectives
1. 5 Steps of a Significance Test
2. Assumptions
3. Hypotheses
4. Calculate the test statistic
5. P-Value
6. Conclusion
Statistical Inference:
Confidence Intervals
What are Point and Interval Estimates of
Population Parameters?
Learning Objectives
1. Point Estimate and Interval Estimate
2. Properties of Point Estimators
3. Confidence Intervals
4. Logic of Confidence Interv
Sampling Distributions
How Likely Are the Possible Values of a
Statistic? The Sampling Distribution
Learning Objectives
1. Statistic vs. Parameter
2. Sampling Distributions
3. Mean and Standard Deviation of the
Sampling Distribution of a Proportion
4. Sta
Sampling Distributions
How Likely Are the Possible Values of a
Statistic? The Sampling Distribution
Learning Objectives
1. Statistic vs. Parameter
2. Sampling Distributions
3. Mean and Standard Deviation of the
Sampling Distribution of a Proportion
4. Sta
Combinations &
Permutations
How many different ways can you chose K
objects from N?
How many ways can you chose K objects
from N?
1
Learning Objective 4:
Factorials
Rules for factorials:
n!=n*(n-1)*(n-2)2*1
1!=1
0!=1
For example,
4!=4*3*2*1=24
2
Combina
Probability in our Daily
Lives
How can Probability
Quantify Randomness?
Learning Objectives
1. Random Phenomena
2. Law of Large Numbers
3. Probability
4. Independent Trials
5. Finding probabilities
6. Types of Probabilities: Relative Frequency
and Subject
Association: Contingency,
Correlation, and Regression
How Can We Explore the Association
between Two Categorical Variables?
Learning Objectives
1. Identify variable type: Response or
Explanatory
2. Define Association
3. Contingency tables
4. Calculate pro