SAMPLING
Section 1.1
Objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
Construct a simple random sample
Determine when samples of convenience are acceptable
Describe stratified sampling, cluster sampling, systematic
sampling, and voluntary response sampling
Distinguish between stat
GRAPHS CAN BE MISLEADING
Section 2.4
Objectives
1.
2.
3.
Understand how improper positioning of the vertical scale can be
misleading
Understand the area principle for constructing statistical graphs
Understand how three-dimensional graphs can be misleadin
MEASURES OF CENTER
Section 3.1
Objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Compute the mean of a data set
Compute the median of a data set
Compare the properties of the mean and median
Find the mode of a data set
Approximate the mean with grouped data
OBJECTIVE 1
Compute t
MEASURES OF SPREAD
Section 3.2
Objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Compute the range of a data set
Compute the variance of a population and a sample
Compute the standard deviation of a population and a sample
Approximate the standard deviation with grouped da
DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS
Section 1.3
Objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
Distinguish between a randomized experiment and an
observational study
Understand the advantages of randomized experiments
Understand how confounding can affect the results of an
observational study
TYPES OF DATA
Section 1.2
Objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
Understand the structure of a typical data set
Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative variables
Distinguish between ordinal and nominal variables
Distinguish between discrete and continuous variab
MEASURES OF POSITION
Section 3.3
Objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Compute and interpret -scores
Compute the quartiles of a data set
Compute the percentiles of a data set
Compute the five-number summary for a data set
Understand the effects of outliers
Constru
MORE GRAPHS FOR
QUANTITATIVE DATA
Section 2.3
Objectives
1.
2.
3.
Construct stem-and-leaf plots
Construct dotplots
Construct time-series plots
OBJECTIVE 1
Construct stem-and-leaf plots
Stem-and-Leaf Plots
Stem-and-leaf plots are a simple way to display sm
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS
AND THEIR GRAPHS
Section 2.2
Objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
Construct frequency distributions for quantitative data
Construct histograms
Determine the shape of a distribution from a histogram
Construct frequency polygons and ogives
OBJECTI
GRAPHICAL SUMMARIES
FOR QUALITATIVE DATA
Section 2.1
Objectives
1.
2.
3.
Construct frequency distributions for qualitative data
Construct bar graphs
Construct pie charts
OBJECTIVE 1
Construct frequency distributions for qualitative
data
Frequency Distribu
TEST 4 REVIEW
1) Find the critical value 2 needed to construct a(n) 99.5% confidence interval
A) 2.81
B) 2.58
C) 2.53
D) 3.71
2) A sample of size n=15 is drawn from an approximately normal population whose
standard deviation is =5.5. The sample mean is =
Table IV Standard Normal Distribution Table
The entries in this table give the
cumulative area under the standard
normal curve to the left of z with the
values of 1 equal to 0 or negative.
A
z 0
ll
Review Test 1-STAT 2023
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) The following pie chart presents the percentages of fish caught in each of four ratings
categories.
Match this pie chart with
Introduction to the
Microscope
Care
Parts
Focusing
Types of Microscopes
Light Microscope - the models found in most schools, use
compound lenses to magnify objects. The lenses bend or
refract light to make the object beneath them appear
closer.
Common m
Microscope
Presented by
R.Parthasarathy
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
Principle
Microscopy is to get a magnified image, in which structures may be
resolved which could not be resolved with the help of an unaided eye.
Magnification
It is the ratio of the size of a
Introduction to the
Microscope
Types of Microscopes
Care
Parts
Focusing
Types of Microscopes
Light Microscope - the models found in most schools, use
compound lenses to magnify objects. The lenses bend or
refract light to make the object beneath them
Microscopes
Section 3-1
History of the
Microscope
1590 first
compound microscope
History of the
Microscope
1655 Robert Hooke used
a compound microscope to
observe pores in cork
He called them cells
History of the
Microscope
Antoine van
Leeuwenhoek
1st to
Happiness
A random sample of 40 countries was selected. For each of the countries, the variables described below was collected.
Variable
Happy
EcoFee
GDPpc
Unemp
Life
Risk
Description
An index (0 to 10) of sbujective wellbeing
An index (0 to 100) of econo
P1: OSO
FREE013-TABLE
FREE013-Moore
September 4, 2008
Table entry for C is the critical
value t required for confidence
level C. To approximate one- and
two-sided P -values, compare the
value of the t statistic with the
critical values of t that match
the
Descriptive Statistics: Graphs 1
Area Principle for graphs the area occupied by a section of a graph is proportional to the percentage
of data represented by that section (except in the timeplot and boxplot which are constructed on
different principles).
Measure of Center
the value at the center or middle of a data set
!
!
Arithmetic Mean (Mean or average)
the measure of center obtained by adding the values and dividing the total by the
number of values
!
!
Mean Advantages
Is relatively reliable, means of
p hat=
the success/n
!
If p-value his < or equal to alpha then.
we reject Ho
!
!
if p-value is > alpha then.
we fail to reject Ho
!
For 2 samples, what does the Ho always look like?
M1-M2
!
!
What is the degrees of freedom rule for dependent samples?
n-1
Statistics
The art and science of collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting data.
!
!
Data
The facts and figures collected, analyzed, and summarized for presentation and
interpretation.
!
Data Set
All the data collected in a particular study.
!
Causal Comparative design
describes a true experiment except for the fact that the groups were not randomly
assigned but can be analyzed with a test of significance just like a true experiment.
!
!
Ex post facto or after the fact design
can be analyzed wi
Least Squares Sense
Mean is the closets value to all the numbers in the data set
!
!
Median
the middle number in the data set
!
Mode
the most frequently occurring number
!
Variability
Describes how consistent scores are with each other
!
Range
Xmax - Xmin
sample
subset of a population
!
population
every individual
!
!
!
random
each individual has equal probability of being selected
!
!
stratified
proportional to the size of a demographic in a population
!
!
voluntary
contains only those individuals that ch
Math Homework (3.2)
I. Measures Of Dispersion
!
!
a. Dispersion is the degree to which the data are spread out.
b. The purpose of these measures is to describe the typical value of a
variable.
A. Compute the Range of a Variable from Raw Data
a. Range is t