THEORETICAL YIELD
When one calculates the result of a mass-mass or limiting reactant problem,
the result is called the THEORETICAL YIELD.
This is the maximum amount possible, given ideal conditions th
Quick Review-Mass-Mass
What mass of CO2 is produced from the burning of 12.0 grams of butane,
C4H10?
R
2 C4H10 + 13 O2 8 CO2 + 10 H2O
G
12.0 g C4H10
F
_ g CO2
grams moles mole ratio F/G grams
12g C4H1
Molar Volume of a Gaseous Substance
We will tackle this in more detail (Chapter 11) later but for now you can work
from this fact.
1 mole of any gaseous substance at STP (Standard Temperature and Pres
Density Review D= mass/volume
Recall density is the ratio of mass to volume.
g/ml (liquids), g/cm3 (solids) , g/l or g/dm3 (gases)
Solids and liquids usually have densities from 0.7 g/ml (objects less
9-2 Limiting Reactants and Percentage Yield
The Pizza Project:
One standard pizza calls for the following ingredients:
400 g flour
50 ml water
10 g yeast
120 g sauce
250 g cheese
5 g oregano
5 g basil
Example 2
How many grams of chlorine are needed to make 45 grams of
hydrochloric acid?
H2 +
Cl2
2 HCl
Given/Start with
45 g HCl
Find/End up with
_ g Cl2
Plan
grams moles mole ratio grams
45 g HCl
1
1
Molar Ratios
Atoms and molecules always react in proportion to the number of molecules or
moles of a substance, not in proportion to their masses.
We will generally be converting into moles.
As a resu
Chapter9
Stoichiometry
9-1
Calculating Quantities in Reactions
Making Muffins: If you are going to make muffins from scratch at
home, you need all the raw ingredients called for in a recipe. A
chemica