Things to think About and Review:
For science to work, scientists must make some assumptions. The rules of
nature, whether simple or complex, are the same everywhere in the universe.
Natural events, structures, and landforms have natural causes. Evidence
The Seafloor Spreading Hypothesis
Scientists brought these observations together in the early 1960s to create the seafloor
spreading hypothesis. In this hypothesis, hot buoyant mantle rises up a mid-ocean ridge, causing the
ridge to rise upward.
The hot m
Plate boundaries are the edges where two plates meet. Most geologic activities,
including volcanoes, earthquakes, and mountain building, take place at plate boundaries.
How can two plates move relative to each other?
Divergent plate bound
Theory of Plate Tectonics
Describe what a plate is and how scientists can recognize its edges.
Explain how mantle convection moves lithospheric plates.
List the three types of boundaries. Are they prone to earthquakes or volcanoes?
Describe the main features of the seafloor.
Explain what seafloor magnetism tells scientists about the seafloor.
Describe the process of seafloor spreading.
World War II gave scientists the too
Magnetic Polarity Evidence
Puzzling new evidence came in the 1950s from studies on the Earth's magnetic history.
Scientists used magnetometers, devices capable of measuring the magnetic field
intensity, to look at the magnetic properties of rocks in many
Explain the continental drift hypothesis.
Describe the evidence Wegener used to support his continental drift idea.
Describe later evidence for continental drift.
The continental drift hypothesis was develo
The Mantle and Core
The two most important things about the mantle are:
(1) it is made of solid rock, and
(2) it is hot. Scientists know that the mantle is made of rock based on evidence from
seismic waves, heat flow, and meteorites. The properties
Compare and describe each of these Earth layers: lithosphere, oceanic crust, and
Compare some of the ways geologists learn about Earths interior.
Describe how convection takes place in the
Earth Science Questions 3.1
1. From what you have learned about the definition of a mineral:
-Explain each substance
-AND/OR explain an example situation with that substance.
Obsidian is a volcanic glass that forms when lava cools and
Plate movement is never smooth
Plates made of solid, rough rock
Stress builds up at plate boundaries
Rocks bend: fold
Rocks break: fracture
Earthquake = removal of stress
Types of Stress:
Confining: pressure from all directions
Earth Science and Its Branches
Define and describe Earth science as a general field with many branches.
Identify the field of geology as a branch of Earth science dealing with the solid Earth.
Describe oceanography as a branc
You have probably learned that the scientific method is the way scientists approach their work. The scientific
method is a series of steps that help to investigate a question. Scientists use data and evidence gathered
As scientists conduct experiments and make observations to test a hypothesis, over time they collect a lot of
data. If a hypothesis explains all the data and none of the data contradicts the hypothesis, the hypothesis
becomes a theory.
What is Earth Science?
Earth science is the study of our home planet and all of its components: its lands, waters,
atmosphere, and interior. In this book, some chapters are devoted to the processes that shape the
lands and impact people.
Wind power is the fastest growing renewable energy source in the world. Windmills are now seen in
many locations, either individually or, more commonly, in large fields.
Energy from the Sun also creates wind, which can be used as wi
Discuss why it takes energy to get energy and why some forms of energy are more useful than
Describe some ways to conserve energy or to use energy more efficiently.
The Earth's Energy chapter deal
Energy efficiency describes how much useful work is extracted from one unit of energy. Remember that
although energy is not created or destroyed, it's just transferred from one form to another; some energy is
nearly always lost in the tr
Where in the World Are You?
Understand the difference between location and direction.
Know how a compass works and how to use one.
Know how to determine location using latitude and longitude.
Without being able to pinpoint a
Chapter 1 Vocabulary
Scientific Method: The steps that scientists follow in order to experimentally answer a question.
Hypothesis: A prediction or explanation that can be tested.
Control: The standard for comparison in an experiment.
rROCK CYCLE INTERACTIVE
Go to: http:/www.learner.org/interactives/rockcycle/index.html
PART 1 INTRODUCTION
Read the Introduction section of the website to complete the table.
Type of Rock
How its formed
What to look for: